By Judith F. Baumhauer, MD, and Kathryn O’Connor, PT
For many years, research on foot and ankle pain and deformity has focused on shoes. In fact, shoe style is the most studied extrinsic factor for foot and ankle injuries in women. Athletic shoes for women, for instance, have traditionally been designed as scaled-down versions of men’s shoes. Research shows, however, that women’s feet are not just smaller versions of men’s feet.