By Terry Stanton
JAAOS article reviews current science, therapies
Intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration is a complex process that was recognized as a clinical entity before the underlying molecular pathophysiology was studied or understood. Research into the molecular basis of degenerative disk disease has greatly increased understanding of the biology underlying this complex process. In the September issue of the Journal of the AAOS (JAAOS), Christopher K. Kepler, MD, and colleagues examined the current state of knowledge about the disease process and reviewed emerging and available biologic treatments.