JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 13, No. 5


Adult cavovarus foot.

Cavovarus foot deformity, which often results from an imbalance of muscle forces, is commonly caused by hereditary motor sensory neuropathies. Other causes are cerebral palsy, cerebral injury (stroke), anterior horn cell disease (spinal root injury), talar neck injury, and residual clubfoot. In cavovarus foot deformity, the relatively strong peroneus longus and tibialis posterior muscles cause a hindfoot varus and forefoot valgus (pronated) position. Hindfoot varus causes overload of the lateral border of the foot, resulting in ankle instability, peroneal tendinitis, and stress fracture. Degenerative arthritic changes can develop in overloaded joints. Gait examination allows appropriate planning of tendon transfers to correct stance and swing-phase deficits. Inspection of the forefoot and hindfoot positions determines the need for soft-tissue release and osteotomy. The Coleman block test is invaluable for assessing the cause of hindfoot varus. Prolonged use of orthoses or supportive footwear can result in muscle imbalance, causing increasing deformity and irreversible damage to tendons and joints. Rebalancing tendons is an early priority to prevent unsalvageable deterioration of the foot. Muscle imbalance can be corrected by tendon transfer, corrective osteotomy, and fusion. Fixed bony deformity can be addressed by fusion and osteotomy.

    • Keywords:
    • Adult|Combined Modality Therapy|Foot Deformities

    • Acquired|Humans|Orthotic Devices|Osteotomy|Tendon Transfer

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Foot and Ankle

    • Spine

Componentry for lower extremity prostheses.

Prosthetic components for both transtibial and transfemoral amputations are available for patients of every level of ambulation. Most current suspension systems, knees, foot/ankle assemblies, and shock absorbers use endoskeletal construction that emphasizes total contact and weight distribution between bony structures and soft tissues. Different components offer varying benefits to energy expenditure, activity level, balance, and proprioception. Less dynamic ambulators may use fixed-cadence knees and non-dynamic response feet; higher functioning walkers benefit from dynamic response feet and variable-cadence knees. In addition, specific considerations must be kept in mind when fitting a patient with peripheral vascular disease or diabetes.

    • Keywords:
    • Amputation|Artificial Limbs|Biomechanics|Foot|Gait|Humans|Leg|Prosthesis Design

    • Subspecialty:
    • Foot and Ankle

    • Basic Science

Core stability and its relationship to lower extremity function and injury.

Core stability may provide several benefits to the musculoskeletal system, from maintaining low back health to preventing knee ligament injury. As a result, the acquisition and maintenance of core stability is of great interest to physical therapists, athletic trainers, and musculoskeletal researchers. Core stability is the ability of the lumbopelvic hip complex to prevent buckling and to return to equilibrium after perturbation. Although static elements (bone and soft tissue) contribute to some degree, core stability is predominantly maintained by the dynamic function of muscular elements. There is a clear relationship between trunk muscle activity and lower extremity movement. Current evidence suggests that decreased core stability may predispose to injury and that appropriate training may reduce injury. Core stability can be tested using isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial methods. Appropriate intervention may result in decreased rates of back and lower extremity injury.

    • Keywords:
    • Abdominal Muscles|Hip Joint|Humans|Leg|Leg Injuries|Lumbar Vertebrae|Pelvis|Physical Education and Training|Postural Balance

    • Subspecialty:
    • Foot and Ankle

    • Sports Medicine

    • Spine

Mallet finger.

Mallet finger involves loss of continuity of the extensor tendon over the distal interphalangeal joint. This common hand injury results in a flexion deformity of the distal finger joint and may lead to an imbalance between flexion and extension forces more proximally in the digit. Mallet injuries can be classified into four types, based on skin integrity and the presence or absence of bony involvement. Although various treatment protocols have been proposed, splinting of the distal interphalangeal joint for 6 to 8 weeks has yielded good results while minimizing morbidity in the majority of patients. Surgical management may be considered for acute and chronic mallet lesions in patients who have failed nonsurgical treatment, are unable to work with the splint in position, or have a fracture involving more than one third of the joint surface.

    • Keywords:
    • Casts

    • Surgical|Finger Injuries|Humans|Orthopedic Procedures|Splints

    • Subspecialty:
    • Hand and Wrist

Subscapularis tendon tears.

Pathology of the subscapularis tendon is both infrequently identified and not commonly considered as a major source of shoulder pain and dysfunction. Subscapularis tendon pathology can present as isolated tears; partial-thickness tears; anterosuperior tears, also involving the supraspinatus tendon; complete rotator cuff avulsion; and rotator interval lesions, in which instability of the long head of the biceps tendon may dominate the clinical presentation. Although an accurate physical examination is paramount, modalities such as arthroscopy, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound have advanced knowledge of the spectrum of abnormalities involving the subscapularis tendon. Nonsurgical management may be effective for most partial tears. Surgically, open repair is more frequent than use of arthroscopic techniques. Tears of the subscapularis tendon portend a different prognosis than do supraspinatus tendon tears, especially when the injury is acute and diagnosis is delayed.

    • Keywords:
    • Arthroscopy|Humans|Reconstructive Surgical Procedures|Rotator Cuff|Tendon Injuries

    • Subspecialty:
    • Sports Medicine

    • Shoulder and Elbow

Tibial shaft fractures in children and adolescents.

Tibial shaft fractures are among the most common pediatric injuries managed by orthopaedic surgeons. Treatment is individualized based on patient age, concomitant injuries, fracture pattern, associated soft-tissue and neurovascular injury, and surgeon experience. Closed reduction and casting is the mainstay of treatment for diaphyseal tibial fractures. Careful clinical and radiographic follow-up with remanipulation as necessary is effective for most patients. Surgical management options include external fixation, locked intramedullary nail fixation in the older adolescent with closed physis, Kirschner wire fixation, and flexible intramedullary nailing. Union of pediatric diaphyseal tibial fractures occurs in approximately 10 weeks; nonunion occurs in <2% of cases. Some clinicians consider sagittal deformity angulation >10 degrees to be malunion and indicate that 10 degrees of valgus and 5 degrees of varus may not reliably remodel. Compartment syndromes associated with tibial shaft fractures occur less frequently in children and adolescents than in adults. Diagnosis may be difficult in a young child or one with altered mental status. Although the toddler fracture of the tibia is one of the most common in children younger than age 2 years, child abuse must be considered in the young child with an inconsistent history or with suspicious concomitant injuries.

    • Keywords:
    • Adolescent|Bone Nails|Bone Wires|Child|Child

    • Preschool|Fracture Fixation|Humans|Infant|Tibial Fractures

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Pediatric Orthopaedics

Unified advocacy agenda.

    • Keywords:
    • Health Care Reform|Humans|Lobbying|Malpractice|Medicine|Organizational Objectives|Orthopedics|Societies

    • Medical|Specialization|United States

    • Subspecialty:
    • Clinical Practice Improvement

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