JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 14, No. 6


Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is being performed by an increasing number of orthopaedic surgeons. The principles, techniques, and instrumentation have evolved to the extent that all patterns and sizes of rotator cuff tear, including massive tears, can now be repaired arthroscopically. Achieving a biomechanically stable construct is critical to biologic healing. The ideal repair construct must optimize suture-to-bone fixation, suture-to-tendon fixation, abrasion resistance of suture, suture strength, knot security, loop security, and restoration of the anatomic rotator cuff footprint (the surface area of bone to which the cuff tendons attach). By achieving optimized repair constructs, experienced arthroscopic surgeons are reporting results equal to those of open rotator cuff repair. As surgeons' arthroscopic skill levels increase through attendance at surgical skills courses and greater experience gained in the operating room, there will be an increasing trend toward arthroscopic repair of most rotator cuff pathology.

    • Keywords:
    • Arthroscopy|Humans|Orthopedic Procedures|Rotator Cuff

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Shoulder and Elbow

Osteoporosis in men.

Osteoporosis is a significant threat to aging bone in men. Thirty percent of hip fractures occur in men; during initial hospitalization and the first year after fracture, the mortality rate is twice that of women. Nevertheless, osteoporosis in men is grossly underdiagnosed and undertreated. The most frequent factors associated with osteoporosis in men are age >75 years, low baseline body mass index (<24 kg/m(2)), weight loss >5% over 4 years, current smoking, and physical inactivity. Osteoporosis in men is either secondary to a primary disease or is idiopathic. It exhibits a bimodal age distribution, with peaks at age 50 years (secondary disease) and at age 70 years (idiopathic). Prevention and early detection currently are the best forms of management. Alone or in combination, calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates, and human parathyroid hormone are all effective management options. In the acute setting of fragility fracture, the orthopaedic surgeon is key in identifying patients at risk because the surgeon provides primary care and may initiate prophylactic measures to prevent future fractures.

    • Keywords:
    • Humans|Male|Osteoporosis|Risk Factors

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Spine

    • Adult Reconstruction

Pigmented villonodular synovitis.

Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a proliferative condition of the synovium. Monoarticular involvement, the most common process, occurs in two forms: localized and diffuse. The localized form is characterized by focal involvement of the synovium, with either nodular or pedunculated masses; the diffuse form affects virtually the entire synovium. The localized form has an excellent prognosis and a low recurrence rate when managed surgically. The more common diffuse form has a reported recurrence rate of up to 46%. Although the condition can present in any joint, the knee is the most commonly affected site. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is often aggressive, with marked extra-articular extension. Open synovectomy is the standard method of management. Arthroscopic synovectomy, which has gained popularity, has several advantages over the open technique, but it is associated with higher recurrence rates in diffuse pigmented villonodular synovitis. Synovectomy by any approach, however, may prevent secondary osteoarthritis and subsequent joint arthroplasty. Radiation-induced synovectomy has shown mixed results. Combined surgical and nonsurgical approaches may be necessary, and in some patients, total joint arthroplasty may be the only effective treatment.

    • Keywords:
    • Humans|Synovitis

    • Pigmented Villonodular

    • Subspecialty:
    • Foot and Ankle

    • Shoulder and Elbow

Proteomics: applications to the study of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

The study of both DNA and protein technologies has been marked by unprecedented achievement over the last decade. The completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003 is representative of a new era in genomics; likewise, proteomics research, which has revolutionized the way we study disease, offers the potential to unlock many of the pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying the clinical problems encountered by orthopaedic surgeons. These new fields are extending our approach to and investigation of the etiology and progression of musculoskeletal disorders, notably rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Advances in proteomics technology may lead to the development of biomarkers for both rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Such biomarkers would improve early detection of these diseases, measure response to treatment, and expand knowledge of disease pathogenesis.

    • Keywords:
    • Arthritis

    • Rheumatoid|Biological Markers|Humans|Mass Spectrometry|Osteoarthritis|Proteome|Proteomics

    • Subspecialty:
    • General Orthopaedics

    • Basic Science

Scoliosis in the child with cerebral palsy.

Scoliosis is common in children with cerebral palsy. The incidence and curve pattern depend on the degree of neurologic involvement. These children carry a higher risk of complications because of the increased presence of associated medical comorbidities. Accordingly, a careful preoperative evaluation is required that should involve assessment of the patient's pulmonary, nutritional, gastrointestinal, and neurologic systems as well as a thorough evaluation of the spine and musculoskeletal system. Children with progressive curves >40 degrees to 50 degrees are candidates for spinal fusion, especially when the deformity interferes with sitting or is unresponsive to bracing. The goal of surgery is to obtain a stable, balanced, and painless spinal fusion. Although posterior spinal fusion with multisegmental fixation is the most common technique, others, such as anterior release and/or fusion or combined procedures, are now considered. In patients with significant pelvic obliquity or who are at risk of developing pelvic obliquity, instrumentation should extend to the pelvis, particularly in the nonambulatory child.

    • Keywords:
    • Cerebral Palsy|Child|Humans|Scoliosis|Spinal Fusion

    • Subspecialty:
    • Pediatric Orthopaedics

    • Spine

The hypoplastic thumb.

Thumb hypoplasia is part of a spectrum of radial longitudinal deficiencies involving the upper limb. Systemic involvement of other organ systems is not uncommon, thus requiring a team approach to management. Because of the variety of anatomic abnormalities associated with thumb hypoplasia, clinical and intraoperative evaluation of the thumb must be precise. Effective management of thumb hypoplasia requires an understanding of the embryology, epidemiology, classification, presentation, and management options. Management, which is primarily determined by the grade of thumb hypoplasia, may include nonsurgical techniques, reconstruction, pollicization, and, recently, microsurgical procedures.

    • Keywords:
    • Hand Deformities

    • Congenital|Humans|Microsurgery|Reconstructive Surgical Procedures|Thumb

    • Subspecialty:
    • Hand and Wrist

    • Basic Science

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