JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 15, No. 9


Carpal tunnel syndrome.

Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compressive neuropathy of the upper extremity. As a result of median nerve compression, the patient reports pain, weakness, and paresthesias in the hand and digits. The etiology of this condition is multifactorial; anatomic, systemic, and occupational factors have all been implicated. The diagnosis is based on the patient history and physical examination and is confirmed by electrodiagnostic testing. Treatment methods range from observation and splinting, to cortisone injection and splinting, to surgical intervention. Both nonsurgical and surgical management provide symptom relief in most patients. The results of open and endoscopic surgery essentially are equivalent at 3 months; the superiority of one technique over the other has yet to be established.

    • Keywords:
    • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome|Endoscopy|Humans|Recurrence|Sensitivity and Specificity|Splints|Ultrasonic Therapy

    • Subspecialty:
    • Hand and Wrist

    • Pain Management

Chronic instability of the distal radioulnar joint.

The ligament reconstruction technique described closely reconstructs the anatomic origin and insertion of the palmar and dorsal radioulnar ligaments. In a series of 14 patients, stability was completely restored in 12. Patients were able to return to their previous work, athletic activities, and avocations without limitations. Recovery of strength and motion was at least 85%. One patient with initial bidirectional instability and good early surgical correction developed recurrent volar instability. Another patient had persistent preoperative ulnocarpal instability and an insufficient volar rim of the sigmoid notch from a previous fracture, but the DRUJ was stabilized. Ligament reconstruction is effective for DRUJ instability but requires a competent sigmoid notch; however, it may not fully correct ulnocarpal instability.

    • Keywords:
    • Chronic Disease|Humans|Joint Instability|Knee Joint|Ligaments

    • Articular|Orthopedic Procedures|Osteotomy|Radius|Ulna

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Hand and Wrist

Femoroacetabular impingement.

Evidence is emerging that subtle morphologic abnormalities around the hip, resulting in femoroacetabular impingement, may be a contributing factor in some instances to osteoarthritis in the young patient. The morphologic abnormalities result in abnormal contact between the femoral neck/head and the acetabular margin, causing tearing of the labrum and avulsion of the underlying cartilage region, continued deterioration, and eventual onset of arthritis. Nonsurgical treatment typically fails to control symptoms. Surgical management involves dislocation of the hip (while preserving the blood supply to the femoral head) and femoroacetabular osteoplasty. Encouraging results have been reported following femoroacetabular osteoplasty and arthroscopic treatment of femoroacetabular impingement.

    • Keywords:
    • Acetabulum|Arthroscopy|Biomechanics|Cartilage

    • Articular|Femur|Femur Neck|Hip Joint|Humans|Osteoarthritis

    • Hip|Range of Motion

    • Articular

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring during spinal surgery.

Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring (IONM) is a battery of neurophysiologic tests used to assess the functional integrity of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and other peripheral nervous system structures (eg, brachial plexus) during spinal surgery. The underlying principle of IONM is to identify emerging insult to nervous system structures, pathways, and/or related vascular supply and to provide feedback regarding correlative changes in neural function before development of irreversible neural injury. IONM data provide an opportunity for intervention to prevent or minimize postoperative neurologic deficit. Current multimodality monitoring techniques permit intraoperative assessment of the functional integrity of afferent dorsal sensory spinal cord tracts, efferent ventral spinal cord motor tracts, and nerve roots. Combined use of these techniques is useful during complex spinal surgery because these monitoring modalities provide important complementary information to the surgery team.

    • Keywords:
    • Anesthesia|Electromyography|Evoked Potentials

    • Motor|Evoked Potentials

    • Somatosensory|Humans|Ischemia|Lumbar Vertebrae|Monitoring

    • Intraoperative|Spinal Cord|Spinal Diseases|Thoracic Vertebrae

    • Subspecialty:
    • Spine

    • Clinical Practice Improvement

Joint space narrowing after partial medial meniscectomy in the anterior cruciate ligament-intact knee.

Osteoarthritis of the knee is common after total medial meniscectomy. In anterior cruciate ligament-intact knees, the reported outcomes of partial medial meniscectomy are variable. Radiographic assessment using a posteroanterior weight-bearing view is a reliable tool for detecting minor medial joint space narrowing, which may be an early sign of osteoarthritis. Studies that assessed the effect of partial medial meniscectomy found a low percentage of patients with >50% joint narrowing at 10 to 15 years after surgery. Digital radiography, using a posteroanterior weight-bearing view, is a highly sensitive method for observing minor joint space narrowing in the involved knee. A recent study showed that 88% of patients who underwent partial medial meniscectomy had joint space narrowing of <2 mm, and none had narrowing >or=2 mm, at a mean follow-up of 12 years. Subjective results after partial medial meniscectomy are favorable, with 88% to 95% of patients reporting good to excellent results.

    • Keywords:
    • Humans|Knee Injuries|Knee Joint|Menisci

    • Tibial|Osteoarthritis

    • Knee|Radiographic Image Enhancement

    • Subspecialty:
    • Sports Medicine

The use of osteoconductive bone graft substitutes in orthopaedic trauma.

Several bone graft substitutes are now available for use in augmenting bone healing following trauma. Many of these products are osteoconductive and are indicated for filling bone defects in conjunction with standard methods of internal and external fixation. Osteoconduction refers to a process in which the three-dimensional structure of a substance is conducive for the ongrowth and/or ingrowth of newly formed bone. Currently used bone graft substitutes that primarily offer osteoconductive properties include coralline hydroxyapatite, collagen-based matrices, calcium phosphate, calcium sulfate, and tricalcium phosphate. These products vary considerably in chemical composition, structural strength, and resorption or remodeling rates. Understanding these differences is important in selecting a bone graft substitute with the properties desired for a specific clinical situation. The limited number of clinical studies and lack of direct-comparison studies between these products require the surgeon to fully understand the properties of each product when choosing a bone graft substitute.

    • Keywords:
    • Bone Cements|Bone Regeneration|Bone Substitutes|Calcium Phosphates|Calcium Sulfate|Ceramics|Fractures

    • Bone|Humans|Hydroxyapatites|Tissue Engineering

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Sports Medicine

    • Basic Science

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