JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 16, No. 4


Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia.

Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia is characterized by anterolateral deformity of the tibia and shortening of the limb. Its etiology remains unclear. Although several classification systems have been proposed, none provides specific guidelines for management. Treatment remains challenging. The goal is to obtain and maintain union while minimizing deformity. The basic biologic considerations with surgical intervention include resection of the pseudarthrosis and bridging of the defect with stable fixation. Intramedullary stabilization, free vascularized fibula, and Ilizarov external fixation are among the most frequently used methods of treatment. In addition, bone morphogenetic protein recently has shown promise. Nevertheless, despite improvements in healing rates with congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia, the potential for amputation in failed cases persists.

    • Keywords:
    • Humans|Pseudarthrosis|Tibia

    • Subspecialty:
    • Adult Reconstruction

Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: trends in management.

Degenerative spondylolisthesis with spinal stenosis is common in elderly patients. When symptomatic, the resultant neurogenic claudication often leads to a diminished quality of life. A nonsurgical approach is an appropriate first step. Maximizing the chance of a solid arthrodesis improves the possibility of a successful long-term outcome. Treatment of this pathology has evolved over the past twenty years with the publication of numerous prospective randomized trials assessing the influence of fusion and instrumentation following decompression. Current prospective trials have evaluated the use of bone morphogenetic proteins as a substitute for autogenous bone graft. Recently, soft-tissue stabilization devices have been advocated as an alternative to fusion. Clinicians should critically evaluate these newer technologies and exercise caution regarding their use until controlled long-term trials are completed.

    • Keywords:
    • Decompression

    • Surgical|Humans|Lumbar Vertebrae|Spinal Fusion|Spondylolisthesis

    • Subspecialty:
    • Spine

Musculoskeletal desmoid tumors.

Desmoid tumors are benign tumors that exhibit varying degrees of local aggressiveness and diverse growth patterns. Magnetic resonance imaging remains the modality of choice for assessment of the nature and size of the soft-tissue lesion and involvement of surrounding structures. Treatment strategies include surgery, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiation therapy, either individually or in combination. Despite the benign nature of these tumors, multidisciplinary care is needed to provide combined treatment options. Chemotherapy in low doses is an excellent first-round treatment in any patient in whom contemplated local treatment may produce local morbidity and adjacent tissue injury.

    • Keywords:
    • Fibromatosis

    • Aggressive|Humans|Muscle Neoplasms|Soft Tissue Neoplasms

    • Subspecialty:
    • Musculoskeletal Oncology

Perioperative medical comorbidities in the orthopaedic patient.

Evaluation and management of medical comorbidities in the perioperative period can help improve surgical morbidity and mortality. Perioperative evaluation essentially is risk assessment and minimization. Patients undergoing orthopaedic treatment may benefit from temporizing measures to reduce systemic complications associated with some procedures. Patients at increased risk of cardiac ischemia should undergo risk stratification to determine possible perioperative interventions. Use of perioperative medications and/or consultation with specialists can help to address heart murmurs, bacterial endocarditis, prior stenting, heart failure, and hypertension. Patients with severe or unstable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease require the involvement of pulmonary care specialists. Renal failure can require nephrology consultation, particularly in cases of worsening renal function or urinary outflow obstruction. Hematologic considerations include bleeding and clotting. Prophylaxis should be used in patients with risk factors for peptic ulcer, as well as respiratory failure and hypotension. Nutritional status and liver disease also must be monitored and treated preoperatively. Orthopaedic diabetic patients should be placed on modified oral hypoglycemic or insulin regimens; recalcitrant cases merit consultation. Effective communication among all members of the patient's caregiving team is paramount.

    • Keywords:
    • Comorbidity|Humans|Orthopedic Procedures|Perioperative Care

    • Subspecialty:
    • Clinical Practice Improvement

The use of long-term bioresorbable scaffolds for anterior cruciate ligament repair.

The absence of adequate options to restore full knee joint function through anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction prompts the need to develop new ligament replacement strategies. Recent focus within the ligament engineering field has been on the establishment of appropriate anterior cruciate ligament graft design requirements and evaluation methods. A range of biomaterials and graft constructions has been explored in an attempt to identify the optimal ligament replacement. Thorough and standardized evaluation methods are required throughout all phases of development, from initial in vitro bench screening through a large animal in vivo model. The initial positive clinical, gross pathologic, histologic, and mechanical results from a 12-month in vivo goat study demonstrate the potential of bioengineered ligament devices.

    • Keywords:
    • Absorbable Implants|Animals|Anterior Cruciate Ligament|Biomechanics|Biomedical Engineering|Female|Goats|Humans|Knee Joint|Range of Motion

    • Articular

    • Subspecialty:
    • Sports Medicine

    • Basic Science

Treatment of periprosthetic humerus fractures associated with shoulder arthroplasty.

The incidence of periprosthetic humerus fracture associated with shoulder arthroplasty is approximately 0.6% to 3%. Fractures of the humerus occur most often intraoperatively and are more common during total shoulder arthroplasty than hemiarthroplasty because of difficulties in gaining access to the glenoid. Osteopenia, advanced age, female sex, and rheumatoid arthritis are medical comorbid factors that may contribute to humerus fractures and associated delayed healing and poorer function. When the humeral prosthetic component is loose or the fracture line overlaps the majority of the length of the prosthesis, revision with a long-stem implant should be considered. When the fracture overlaps the tip of the prosthesis and extends distally, open reduction and internal fixation is recommended. When the fracture is completely distal to the prosthesis and satisfactory alignment at the fracture site can be maintained with a fracture brace, then a trial of nonsurgical treatment is recommended. The primary goals of treatment are fracture union and pain relief. Loss of glenohumeral motion has limited the successful treatment of this challenging problem.

    • Keywords:
    • Arthroplasty

    • Replacement|Humans|Humeral Fractures|Intraoperative Complications|Joint Prosthesis|Postoperative Complications|Prosthesis Failure|Reoperation|Shoulder Joint

    • Subspecialty:
    • Shoulder and Elbow

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