JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 17, No. 5


Intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures: current concepts.

Intramedullary nailing is the preferred method for treating fractures of the femoral shaft. The piriformis fossa and greater trochanter are viable starting points for antegrade nailing. Alternatively, retrograde nailing may be performed. Each option has relative advantages, disadvantages, and indications. Patient positioning can affect the relative ease of intramedullary nailing and the incidence of malalignment. The timing of femoral intramedullary nailing as well as the use of reaming must be tailored to each patient to avoid systemic complications. Associated comorbidities, the body habitus, and associated injuries should be considered when determining the starting point, optimal patient positioning for nailing, whether to use reduction aids as well as which to use, and any modifications of standard technique. Intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal femur fractures provides a stable fixation construct that can be applied using indirect reduction techniques. This method yields high union rates and low complication rates when vigilance is maintained during preoperative planning, the surgical procedure, and the postoperative period.

    • Keywords:
    • Bone Nails|Femoral Fractures|Fracture Fixation

    • Intramedullary|Humans|Treatment Outcome

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

Medial meniscus posterior horn avulsion.

Avulsion of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can occur from acute trauma or chronic degeneration, leading to meniscus extrusion, articular cartilage loss, osteophyte formation, and medial joint space narrowing. With meniscus extrusion, the meniscus is unable to resist hoop stresses and cannot shield the adjacent articular cartilage from excessive axial load. Over time, this can lead to symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Patients typically report pain, swelling, mechanical symptoms, and general functional loss. Although nonsurgical care may relieve symptoms, it is unlikely to alter either the natural history of meniscal loss or the fate of the medial compartment. Surgical repair of posterior horn meniscal avulsion is done in an attempt to restore the anatomy and biomechanical function of the meniscus, and to slow or prevent degenerative joint disease. Meniscal transplantation is reserved for salvage situations.

    • Keywords:
    • Biomechanics|Diagnostic Imaging|Humans|Joint Diseases|Knee Injuries|Menisci

    • Tibial|Orthopedic Procedures

    • Subspecialty:
    • Sports Medicine

Metacarpophalangeal joint dislocation.

Traumatic dislocation of the metacarpophalangeal joint is a relatively uncommon injury. The dislocation may be easily reducible (ie, simple) or require surgical intervention (ie, complex). The flexor tendons, lumbrical muscle, natatory ligament, and superficial transverse metacarpal ligament combine with the displaced volar plate to create a tight noose, preventing reduction. Surgical approach may be dorsal or volar; however, the radial digital nerve to the index finger is especially at risk through the volar approach. Reported complications include stiffness, arthritis, osteonecrosis of the metacarpal head, and even premature closure of the physis.

    • Keywords:
    • Dislocations|Humans|Metacarpophalangeal Joint|Orthopedic Procedures

    • Subspecialty:
    • Hand and Wrist

Peroneal tendon injuries.

Peroneal tendon injuries are underdiagnosed and should be considered in every patient who presents with chronic lateral ankle pain. Ankle sprains are common, and up to 40% of affected individuals experience subsequent chronic ankle pain. Identifying the source of chronic ankle pain can be difficult because of the large number of possible causes. The peroneal tendons are the primary evertors of the foot and function as lateral ankle stabilizers. A careful physical examination, along with a thorough patient history and imaging studies, are critical in arriving at an accurate diagnosis. Understanding the anatomy of the peroneal tendons and knowledge of current treatment approaches for peroneal tendon tears, subluxation and dislocation of the tendons, and peroneal tenosynovitis are of great importance in achieving a favorable outcome. Low-demand patients do well with a nonsurgical approach; high-demand patients may benefit from surgery.

    • Keywords:
    • Ankle Injuries|Humans|Orthopedic Procedures|Tendon Injuries|Tendons

    • Subspecialty:
    • Foot and Ankle

    • Sports Medicine

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty.

The radical changes in prosthetic design made in the mid 1980s transformed the historically poorly performing reverse ball-and-socket total shoulder prosthesis into a highly successful salvage implant for pseudoparalytic, severely rotator cuff-deficient shoulders. Moving the center of rotation more medial and distal as well as implanting a large glenoid hemisphere that articulates with a humeral cup in 155 degrees of valgus are the biomechanical keys to sometimes spectacular short- to mid-term results. Use of the reverse total shoulder arthroplasty device allows salvage of injuries that previously were beyond surgical treatment. However, this technique has a complication rate approximately three times that of conventional arthroplasty. Radiographic and clinical results appear to deteriorate over time. Proper patient selection and attention to technical details are needed to reduce the currently high complication rate.

    • Keywords:
    • Arthroplasty

    • Replacement|Humans|Joint Diseases|Shoulder Joint

    • Subspecialty:
    • Shoulder and Elbow

Surgical approaches to the elbow.

Surgical exposures for complex injuries about the elbow are technically demanding because of the high density of neurologic, vascular, and ligamentous elements around the elbow. The posterior approaches (ie, olecranon osteotomy, triceps-reflecting, triceps-splitting, triceps-reflecting anconeus pedicle flap, paratricipital) include techniques used to navigate the area around the triceps tendon and anconeus muscle. These approaches may be extended to gain access to the entire joint. The ulnar nerve, the anterior and posterior capsules, and the coronoid process are addressed by means of a medial approach. Lateral approaches are useful in addressing pathology at the radial head, capitellum, coronoid process, and anterior and posterior capsules. These approaches may be combined to address complex pathology in the setting of fracture fixation, arthroplasty, and capsular release.

    • Keywords:
    • Elbow Joint|Humans|Joint Diseases|Orthopedic Procedures

    • Subspecialty:
    • Shoulder and Elbow

Advertisements

Advertisement