JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 19, No. 12


"Growth Friendly" Spine Surgery: Management Options for the Young Child With Scoliosis

The natural history of early onset scoliosis is dismal and associated with poor pulmonary function and increased mortality. Although limited in situ fusion may be appropriate for certain types of congenital scoliosis deformities, spinal deformity that affects young children often requires a "growth friendly" surgical approach that allows for curve control while maintaining growth of the spine and thorax. Growth-friendly surgical management of early onset scoliosis can follow a distraction-based (ie, growth rods, vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib [Synthes, West Chester, PA]), guided-growth (ie, Luque trolley technique, Shilla technique), or compression-based (ie, tethers, staples) strategy.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Pediatric Orthopaedics

      • Spine

    Dupuytren Disease: An Evolving Understanding of an Age-old Disease

    Dupuytren disease, a clinical entity originally described more than 400 years ago, is a progressive disease of genetic origin. Excessive myofibroblast proliferation and altered collagen matrix composition lead to thickened and contracted palmar fascia; the resultant digital flexion contractures may severely limit function. The pathophysiology is multifactorial and remains a topic of research and debate. Genetic predisposition, trauma, inflammatory response, ischemia, and environment, as well as variable expression of proteins and growth factors within the local tissue, all play a role in the disease process. Common treatments of severe disease include open fasciectomy or fasciotomy. These procedures may be complicated by the complex anatomic relationships between cords (pathologic contracted fascia) and adjacent neurovascular structures. Recent advances in the management of Dupuytren disease involve less invasive treatments, such as percutaneous needle fasciotomy and injectable collagenase Clostridium histolyticum. Postoperative management focuses on minimizing the cellular response of cord disruption and maximizing range of motion through static or dynamic extension splinting.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Hand and Wrist

      Iliotibial Band Syndrome: Evaluation and Management

      Iliotibial band syndrome is a common overuse injury typically seen in runners, cyclists, and military recruits. Affected patients report lateral knee pain associated with repetitive motion activities. The diagnosis is usually made based on a characteristic history and physical examination, with imaging studies reserved for cases of recalcitrant disease to rule out other pathologic entities. Several etiologies have been proposed for iliotibial band syndrome, including friction of the iliotibial band against the lateral femoral epicondyle, compression of the fat and connective tissue deep to the iliotibial band, and chronic inflammation of the iliotibial band bursa. The mainstay of treatment is nonsurgical; however, in persistent or chronic cases, surgical management is indicated.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Sports Medicine

        Management of Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder

        Multidirectional shoulder instability is defined as symptomatic instability in two or more directions. Instability occurs when static and dynamic shoulder stabilizers become incompetent due to congenital or acquired means. Nonspecific activity-related pain and decreased athletic performance are common presenting complaints. Clinical suspicion for instability is essential for timely diagnosis. Several examination techniques can be used to identify increased glenohumeral translation. It is critical to distinguish increased laxity from instability. Initial management begins with therapeutic rehabilitation. If surgical management is required, capsular plication has been used successfully. Advanced arthroscopic techniques offer several advantages over traditional open approaches and may have similar outcomes. The role of rotator interval capsular plication is controversial, but it may be used to augment capsular plication in patients with specific patterns of instability. Despite encouraging results, outcomes remain inferior to those associated with traumatic unidirectional instability.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Shoulder and Elbow

          Preventing Venous Thromboembolic Disease in Patients Undergoing Elective Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

          This guideline supersedes a prior one from 2007 on a similar topic. The work group evaluated the available literature concerning various aspects of patient screening, risk factor assessment, and prophylactic treatment against venous thromboembolic disease (VTED), as well as the use of postoperative mobilization, neuraxial agents, and vena cava filters. The group recommended further assessment of patients who have had a previous venous thromboembolism but not for other potential risk factors. Patients should be assessed for known bleeding disorders, such as hemophilia, and for the presence of active liver disease. Patients who are not at elevated risk of VTED or for bleeding should receive pharmacologic prophylaxis and mechanical compressive devices for the prevention of VTED. The group did not recommend specific pharmacologic agents and/or mechanical devices. The work group recommends, by consensus opinion, early mobilization for patients following elective hip and knee arthroplasty. The use of neuraxial anesthesia can help limit blood loss but was not found to affect the occurrence of VTED. No clear evidence was established regarding whether inferior vena cava filters can prevent pulmonary embolism in patients who have a contraindication to chemoprophylaxis and/or known VTED.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Adult Reconstruction

            Total Hip Arthroplasty in the Ankylosed Hip

            Altered biomechanics secondary to hip ankylosis often result in degeneration of the lumbar spine, ipsilateral knee, and contralateral hip and knee. Symptoms in these joints may be reduced with conversion total hip arthroplasty (THA) of the ankylosed hip. THA in the ankylosed hip is a technically challenging procedure, and the overall clinical outcome is generally less satisfactory than routine THA performed for osteoarthritis and other etiologies. Functional integrity of the hip abductor muscles is the most important predictor of walking ability following conversion THA. Many patients experience persistent limp, and it can take up to 2 years to fully assess final functional outcome. Risk factors cited for increased risk of failed THA include prior surgical ankylosis and age <50 years at the time of conversion THA.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Trauma

                • Adult Reconstruction

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