JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 19, No. 3


Avulsion Injuries of the Flexor Digitorum Profundus Tendon

Avulsions of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon may involve tendon retraction into the palm and fractures of the distal phalanx. Although various repair techniques have been described, none has emerged as superior to others. Review of the literature does provide evidence-based premises for treatment: multi-strand repairs perform better, gapping may be seen with pullout suturedorsal button repairs, and failure because of bone pullout remains a concern with suture anchor methods. Clinical prognostic factors include the extent of proximal tendon retraction, chronicity of the avulsion, and the presence and size of associated osseous fragments. Patients must be counseled appropriately regarding anticipated outcomes, the importance of postoperative rehabilitation, and potential complications. Treatment alternatives for the chronic avulsion injury remain patient-specific and include nonsurgical management, distal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis, and staged reconstruction.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Hand and Wrist

    Humeral Avulsion of Glenohumeral Ligaments

    Humeral avulsion of glenohumeral ligaments (HAGL) is an increasingly recognized cause of recurrent shoulder instability. HAGL lesions are the result of acute traumatic glenohumeral subluxation or dislocation. Anterior avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament from the humeral neck is the more common lesion; however, posterior lesions are seen as well. Careful history and physical examination are critical in the diagnosis of HAGL lesions. MRI is the best imaging study for diagnosing these lesions. Injection of intra-articular contrast dye aids in visualization. Most HAGL lesions cause recurrent instability and require surgical repair. Arthroscopic repair with the use of accessory portals has yielded promising results. Excellent results have been achieved with open surgical management using a subscapularis incision. Mini-open techniques involve limited incision in the lower one half of the subscapularis.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Sports Medicine

        • Shoulder and Elbow

      Rheumatologic Conditions in Children Who May Present to the Orthopaedic Surgeon

      Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, formerly known as juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by onset of chronic arthritis in childhood. Diagnosis requires onset of disease by age 16 years, persistent arthritis in any joint for ≥6 weeks, and exclusion of other conditions that cause arthritis (eg, infection, malignancy, acute rheumatic fever, inflammatory bowel disease). Most patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis present with subacute arthritis with minimal pain and few constitutional symptoms. Laboratory evaluation and imaging are useful to exclude other diagnoses and establish the presence of systemic inflammation. However, these modalities are of limited value in screening for rheumatic diseases, and they may be misleading because of the high rate of false-positive results. Most rheumatologic conditions are diagnosed based on pattern recognition, which is established with a thorough history and physical examination.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Pediatric Orthopaedics

        The Treatment of Symptomatic Osteoporotic Spinal Compression Fractures

        This clinical practice guideline is based on a series of systematic reviews of published studies on the treatment of symptomatic osteoporotic spinal compression fractures. Of 11 recommendations, one is strong; one, moderate; three, weak; and six, inconclusive. The strong recommendation is against the use of vertebroplasty to treat the fractures; the moderate recommendation is for the use of calcitonin for 4 weeks following the onset of fracture. The weak recommendations address the use of ibandronate and strontium ranelate to prevent additional symptomatic fractures, the use of L2 nerve root blocks to treat the pain associated with L3 or L4 fractures, and the use of kyphoplasty to treat symptomatic fractures in patients who are neurologically intact.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Spine

          The Use of Highly Cross-linked Polyethylene in Total Knee Arthroplasty

          Polyethylene wear, with resultant particle-induced osteolysis, is a cause of late failure of total knee arthroplasty. The causes of both wear and osteolysis are multifactorial; still, improvements in the polyethylene liner have been investigated. Available highly cross-linked polyethylene tibial liners and patellar prostheses differ greatly in the amount and method of irradiation, thermal treatments, and sterilization techniques they undergo. Several varieties of highly cross-linked polyethylene reduce the gravimetric and volumetric wear of tibial liners in knee simulator studies. However, reduced fracture toughness and the generation of smaller and possibly more reactive particles also have been reported with some varieties of polyethylene. Clinical studies of the use of highly cross-linked polyethylene in total knee arthroplasty are limited. Two nonrandomized trials of highly cross-linked polyethylene in total knee arthroplasty have reported a nonsignificant decrease in radiolucent lines at 2 and 5 years, respectively. The risks of using highly cross-linked polyethylene include fracture of the liner or of a posterior-stabilized tibial post, liner dislodgement or locking mechanism disruption, and possibly more osteolysis. Highly cross-linked polyethylene tibial liners may be considered for younger, more active patients. However, until additional clinical results are available, a cautious approach is warranted to the widespread use of highly cross-linked polyethylene in total knee arthroplasty.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Adult Reconstruction

              • Basic Science

            Tissue Engineering Solutions for Tendon Repair

            Tendon injuries range from acute traumatic ruptures and lacerations to chronic overuse injuries, such as tendinosis. Even with improved nonsurgical, surgical, and rehabilitation techniques, outcomes following tendon repair are inconsistent. Primary repair remains the standard of care. However, repaired tendon tissue rarely achieves functionality equal to that of the preinjured state. Poor results have been linked to alterations in cellular organization within the tendon that occur at the time of injury and throughout the early stages of healing. Enhanced understanding of the biology of tendon healing is needed to improve management and outcomes. The use of growth factors and mesenchymal stem cells and the development of biocompatible scaffolds could result in enhanced tendon healing and regeneration. Recent advances in tendon bioengineering may lead to improved management following tendon injury.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Sports Medicine

                • Basic Science

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