JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 19, No. 7


Abductor Tendon Tears of the Hip: Evaluation and Management

The gluteus medius and minimus muscle-tendon complex is crucial for gait and stability in the hip joint. There are three clinical presentations of abductor tendon tears. Degenerative or traumatic tears of the hip abductor tendons, so-called rotator cuff tears of the hip, are seen in older patients with intractable lateral hip pain and weakness but without arthritis of the hip joint. The second type of tear may be relatively asymptomatic. It is often seen in patients undergoing arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture or elective total hip arthroplasty (THA) for osteoarthritis. The third type of abductor tendon dysfunction occurs with avulsion or failure of repair following THA performed through the anterolateral approach. Abductor tendon tear should be confirmed on MRI. When nonsurgical management is unsuccessful, open repair of the tendons with transosseous sutures is recommended. Good pain relief has been reported following endoscopic repair. Abductor tendon repair has had inconsistent results in persons with avulsion following THA. Reconstruction with a gluteus maximus muscle flap or Achilles tendon allograft has provided promising short-term results in small series.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Trauma

      • Adult Reconstruction

    Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Articular Cartilage

    The pathology, assessment, and management of articular cartilage lesions of the hip and knee have been the subject of considerable attention in the recent orthopaedic literature. MRI has long been an important tool in the diagnosis and management of articular cartilage pathology, but detecting and interpreting early cartilaginous degeneration with this technology has been difficult. Biochemical-based MRI has been advocated to detect early cartilaginous degenerative changes and assess cartilage repair. Techniques such as T2 mapping, T1rho (ie, T1 in the rotating frame), sodium MRI, and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC) take advantage of changes in the complex biochemical composition of articular cartilage and may help detect morphologic cartilaginous changes earlier than does conventional MRI. Although the newer modalities have been used primarily in the research setting, their ability to assess the microstructure of articular cartilage may eventually enhance the diagnosis and management of osteoarthritis.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Sports Medicine

      Complications in Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

      Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty was initially used to manage complex shoulder problems. Indications have been expanded to include rotator cuff arthropathy, massive rotator cuff tear, failed shoulder arthroplasty, and fracture sequelae. Increased use of primary reverse total shoulder arthroplasty has led to reports of associated problems unique to the procedure. The most common complications include neurologic injury, periprosthetic fracture, hematoma, infection, scapular notching, dislocation, mechanical baseplate failure, and acromial fracture. Little information has been published regarding best practices for managing these complications.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Shoulder and Elbow

        Fall Prevention in the Elderly: Analysis and Comprehensive Review of Methods Used in the Hospital and in the Home

        Falls in the elderly are a significant problem both in and out of the hospital. The Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 and the Fiscal Year 2009 Inpatient Prospective Payment System Final Rule, as outlined by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, placed on hospitals the financial burden of fall prevention for falls (ie, hospital-acquired conditions) that could have been prevented by following evidence-based guidelines. Multifaceted and individualized programs have been created to prevent falls in the elderly. Many of these interventions are based on expert opinion and statistical trends. Our review of the literature revealed that the risk of fall is only slightly greater in the hospital environment than in the home and that there is no medical evidence that evidence-based guidelines are effective in fall prevention.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Clinical Practice Improvement

          Management of Distal Clavicle Fractures

          Most clavicle fractures heal without difficulty. However, radiographic nonunion after distal clavicle fracture has been reported in 10% to 44% of patients. Type II distal clavicle fractures, which involve displacement, are associated with the highest incidence of nonunion. Several studies have questioned the clinical relevance of distal clavicle nonunion, however. Nonsurgical and surgical management provide similar results. The decision whether to operate may be influenced by the amount of fracture displacement and the individual demands of the patient. Surgical options to achieve bony union include transacromial wire fixation, a modified Weaver-Dunn procedure, use of a tension band, screw fixation, plating, and arthroscopy. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages; insufficient evidence exists to demonstrate that any one technique consistently provides the best results.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Sports Medicine

              • Adult Reconstruction

            Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Orthopaedic Implications

            Multiple myeloma is a hematologic malignancy that commonly affects the skeletal system. The disease is primarily managed medically with chemotherapeutic agents. Pathologic fractures are common in patients with diagnosed and undiagnosed disease. The number of patients diagnosed with multiple myeloma is increasing, as is the incidence of associated pathologic fractures. Novel chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy protocols have been used to extend the average life span of patients with this disease. Various methods that allow for restoration of function and pain reduction can be used to stabilize and manage fractures associated with multiple myeloma. The orthopaedic surgeon and oncology team must work together to develop an individualized treatment plan to improve patient quality of life and provide pain relief.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Musculoskeletal Oncology

              Surgical Exposures of the Radius and Ulna

              The forearm contains many muscles, nerves, and vascular structures that change position on forearm rotation. Exposure of the radial shaft is best achieved with the Henry (volar) or Thompson (dorsal) approach. The volar flexor carpi radialis approaches are used increasingly for exposure of the distal radius. Although the dorsal approach is a safe utilitarian option with many applications, its use for managing fracture of the distal radius has waned. Potential complications associated with radial exposure include injury to the superficial branch of the radial nerve, the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve, and the cephalic vein. Dorsal and ulnar proximal radial exposures are associated with increased risk of injury to the posterior interosseous nerve. With surgical exposure of the ulna, care is required to avoid injuring the dorsal cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Hand and Wrist

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