JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 19, No. 9


Adhesive Capsulitis of the Shoulder

Adhesive capsulitis is characterized by painful, gradual loss of active and passive shoulder motion resulting from fibrosis and contracture of the joint capsule. Other shoulder pathology can produce a similar clinical picture, however, and must be considered. Management is based on the underlying cause of pain and stiffness, and determination of the etiology is essential. Subtle clues in the history and physical examination can help differentiate adhesive capsulitis from other conditions that cause a stiff, painful shoulder. The natural history of adhesive capsulitis is a matter of controversy. Management of true capsular restriction of motion (ie, true adhesive capsulitis) begins with gentle, progressive stretching exercises. Most patients improve with nonsurgical treatment. Indications for surgery should be individualized. Failure to obtain symptomatic improvement and continued functional disability following ≥6 months of physical therapy is a general guideline for surgical intervention. Diligent postoperative therapy to maintain motion is required to minimize recurrence of adhesive capsulitis.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Shoulder and Elbow

    All-polyethylene Tibial Components in Modern Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Most total knee arthroplasty prostheses have modular tibial components with metal-backed tibial baseplates. Biomechanical studies have demonstrated mechanical advantages to a metal-backed tibial component in terms of tibial load transfer. In addition, tibial component modularity provides intraoperative flexibility and may provide an advantage in the setting of subsequent revision knee surgery. However, clinical evidence does not support the preferential use of metal-backed tibial components. Modularity introduces the potential for backside wear and associated osteolysis. Also, several recent studies have shown no significant differences in clinical and radiographic outcomes between metal-backed and all-polyethylene tibial components. In addition, all-polyethylene tibial components are less expensive than metal-backed components; increased usage of all-polyethylene components could help decrease the cost of health care.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Adult Reconstruction

      Classic Bladder Exstrophy: Orthopaedic Surgical Considerations

      Classic bladder exstrophy is an embryologic malformation that results in complex deficiency of the anterior midline, with urogenital and skeletal manifestations. Urogenital reconstruction is a challenging procedure that can be facilitated by closure of the bony pelvic ring by an orthopaedic team. Surgical options include a multiyear staged approach and the single-stage complete repair for exstrophy. The goals of urologic surgery include closure of the bladder and abdominal wall with eventual bladder continence, preservation of renal function, and cosmetic and functional reconstruction of the genitalia. Pelvic osteotomy is done at the time of bladder closure in the patient in whom the anterior pelvis cannot be approximated without tension. Traction or spica casting is used postoperatively. Good outcomes are probable with appropriate management at specialized treatment centers.

          • Subspecialty:
          • General Orthopaedics

        Intervertebral Disk Degeneration and Emerging Biologic Treatments

        Although understanding of the biologic basis of intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration is rapidly advancing, the unique IVD environment presents challenges to the development and delivery of biologic treatments. Acceleration of cellular senescence and apoptosis in degenerative IVDs and the depletion of matrix proteins have prompted the development of treatments based on replacing IVD cells using various cell sources. However, this strategy has not been tested in animal models. IVD degeneration and associated pain have led to interest in pathologic innervation of the IVD and ultimately to the development of percutaneous devices to ablate afferent nerve endings in the posterior annulus. Degeneration leads to changes in the expression of matrix protein, cytokines, and proteinases. Injection of growth factors and mitogens may help overcome these degenerative changes in IVD phenotype, and these potential treatments are being explored in animal studies. Gene therapy is an elegant method to address changes in protein expression, but efforts to apply this technology to IVD degeneration are still at early stages.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Spine

          Management of Aseptic Tibial Nonunion

          Tibial nonunion remains a significant clinical challenge despite advances in surgical management. New techniques to help manage tibial nonunion include extracorporeal shock wave therapy and percutaneous application of bone marrow aspirate. Management strategies vary based on the type of nonunion: aseptic or infected, and atrophic or hypertrophic. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy has been shown to be as effective as surgical management in patients with stable hypertrophic nonunion. New fixation options include locked plates and intramedullary compression nails. Novel methods of external fixation have been developed for bone graft harvest from the intramedullary canal. Several biologic adjuncts also are available, including bone marrow aspirates, stem cells, and bone morphogenetic protein.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Trauma

            Perilunate Dislocation and Perilunate Fracture-dislocation

            Perilunate dislocations and perilunate fracture-dislocations usually result from high-energy traumatic injuries to the wrist and are associated with a characteristic spectrum of bony and ligamentous damage. Radiographic evaluation of the wrist reveals loss of normal radiocarpal and intercarpal colinearity and bony insult, which may be overlooked at the initial presentation. Prompt recognition is important to optimize outcomes. Closed reduction is performed acutely, followed by open reduction and ligamentous and bony repair with internal fixation. Complications include posttraumatic arthrosis, median nerve dysfunction, complex regional pain syndrome, tendon problems, and carpal instability. Despite appropriate treatment, loss of wrist motion and grip strength, as well as persistent pain, is common. Medium- and long-term studies demonstrate radiographic evidence of midcarpal and radiocarpal arthrosis, although this does not correlate with functional outcomes.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Trauma

              The Effect of Drill Bit, Pin, and Wire Tip Design on Drilling

              Successful penetration of bone is dependent on several factors, including bone quality, drill bit and pin design, and drilling technique. Wires are also used in bone drilling, and the tip configuration can affect the efficiency of bone penetration. Incorrect use of drill bits, pins, and wires may result in complications such as thermal necrosis and hardware breakage.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Trauma

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