JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 20, No. 2


Adult Scheuermann Kyphosis: Evaluation, Management, and New Developments

Scheuermann kyphosis is a structural hyperkyphosis defined radiographically as anterior wedging of ≥5° of at least three consecutive vertebral bodies. Typically, the disease develops during adolescence but may not present until adulthood. The etiology remains unknown. Indications for management include progressive deformity, pain, cosmesis, neurologic deficit, and cardiopulmonary compromise. Surgical intervention is indicated in patients with persistent pain and unacceptable deformity caused by significant kyphosis. Surgery can be performed through posterior-only, anterior-only, or combined anterior-posterior approaches. Correction should include the entire length of the kyphosis and should not exceed 50% of the original deformity. The most common postoperative complications are wound infection and loss of correction.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Spine

    Biomechanical Testing of Fracture Fixation Constructs: Variability, Validity, and Clinical Applicability

    Biomechanical testing of fracture fixation implants is crucial in preclinical evaluation and in comparing new devices with standard devices. Many variables must be considered when planning and implementing a biomechanical in vitro experiment. The type of test selected (eg, load-to-failure, stiffness, cyclic fatigue) depends on the research question being asked. For example, cyclic fatigue testing attempts to replicate clinical situations; thus, the load magnitudes and directions and the number of cycles should be decided accordingly. Most important, each bone and region of bone experiences specific in vivo forces based on muscular and other forces. Debate persists regarding whether cadaver or synthetic bone is optimal. The use of either material in biomechanical testing should be carefully considered and justified in the context of the study hypothesis. Appropriate study design is the main factor that affects the clinical applicability of the findings and the accuracy of the conclusions.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Trauma

      Contributing Factors to Surgical Site Infections

      Surgical site infections (SSIs) are the most common nosocomial infections. These complications lead to revision surgery, delayed wound healing, increased use of antibiotics, and increased length of hospital stay, all of which have a significant impact on patients and the cost of health care. Such intraoperative factors as proper skin preparation, adherence to sterile technique, surgical duration, and traffic in the operating room contribute more to SSIs than do patient-related risk factors such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, and preexisting colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Surgeons have a responsibility to understand the current evidence regarding the factors that affect the rates of SSIs so as to provide the highest level of patient care.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Trauma

          • Adult Reconstruction

        Factitious Disorders of the Upper Extremity

        Factitious disorders of the upper extremity can manifest in many different forms; therefore, it is critical to recognize warning signs in the history and examination indicating that the patient may be creating the symptoms and physical manifestations of the presenting illness. These disorders present in such predictable patterns as lymphedema, Secretan syndrome, ulcerations and wound manipulation, clenched fist, subcutaneous emphysema, pachydermodactyly, nail deformities, and self-mutilation. Management recommendations include assigning therapeutic responsibility to one person and the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. Thorough documentation is essential for the protection of both the patient and the treating physician. Treatment of patients with factitious disorders of the upper extremity requires patience and insight to avoid being manipulated into performing unnecessary surgical procedures.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Shoulder and Elbow

          Management of Supracondylar Humerus Fractures in Children: Current Concepts

          Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common elbow fractures in the pediatric population. Type I fractures are managed nonsurgically, but most displaced injuries (types II, III, and IV) require surgical intervention. Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning remains the mainstay of surgical management. Numerous studies have reported recent alterations in important aspects of managing these fractures. Currently, many surgeons wait until 12 to 18 hours after injury to perform surgery provided the child's neurovascular and soft-tissue statuses permit. Increasingly, type II fractures are managed surgically; cast management is reserved for fractures with extension displacement only. Two to three lateral pins are adequate for stabilizing most fractures. Evolving management concepts include those regarding pin placement, the problems of a pulseless hand, compartment syndrome, and posterolateral rotatory instability.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Pediatric Orthopaedics

            Nerve Conduits for Nerve Repair or Reconstruction

            Advances in treating peripheral nerve lesions have resulted from research in nerve regeneration and the use biomaterials as well as synthetic materials. When direct tensionless repair of peripheral nerve lesions is not possible, nerve conduits may be used to bridge digital sensory nerve gaps of ≤3 cm. Nerve autograft is the benchmark for larger, longer, mixed, or motor nerve defects. Biologic, autogenous conduits typically veins or, rarely, arteries have demonstrated their utility in nerve gaps <3 cm in length. Three types of bioabsorbable conduit have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, constructed of collagen, polyglycolic acid, or caprolactone. Caprolactone conduits have been found to be equivalent in results to autograft. Collagen conduits are next best, and polyglycolic acid conduits are functionally inferior. Further research and prospective, multicenter, large-scale trials are needed to help establish the role of synthetic, bioabsorbable conduits in peripheral nerve reconstruction.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Shoulder and Elbow

              Postarthroscopic Glenohumeral Chondrolysis

              Postarthroscopic glenohumeral chondrolysis (PAGCL) is a rare complication in which the articular cartilage of the shoulder undergoes rapid, degenerative changes shortly after arthroscopic surgery. Patients with PAGCL are often young (eg, aged 10 to 40 years) and develop deep shoulder pain with progressive loss of motion that begins months after the initial arthroscopic surgery. PAGCL should be considered in the differential diagnosis in the patient with deep, unexplained shoulder pain following arthroscopic surgery. Although the etiology of PAGCL is not yet fully understood, the pathophysiology is likely multifactorial. Inherent patient factors and risk factors for PAGCL have been identified, but it is unclear how these factors interact. Current surgical practices need to be examined and new practices developed to prevent PAGCL. Proud placement of nonabsorbable suture anchors during surgery to correct instability, as well as the use of thermal devices and intra-articular pain pumps, should be avoided.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Sports Medicine

                  • Shoulder and Elbow

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