JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 20, No. 7


Fracture of the Cuboid

Cuboid fracture accounts for a minority of all foot fractures in adults and often is indicative of a multiply injured foot. Understanding the normal anatomy and function of the cuboid and its relation to foot biomechanics is necessary for appropriate management. Clinical evaluation includes history, physical examination, and thorough assessment of the skin and soft tissues. Plain radiographs and CT are helpful in preoperative planning. Cuboid fractures may be managed either nonsurgically (splinting or casting) or surgically (closed reduction and external fixation or open reduction and internal fixation). Careful handling of the soft tissues is important, as is restoration of articular congruity, lateral column length, and a stable midfoot. Postoperative care consists of prolonged immobilization followed by 3 months of progressive weight bearing. Published reports of long-term outcomes and functional postoperative assessments are lacking.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Foot and Ankle

    Hip-spine Syndrome

    The incidence of symptomatic osteoarthritis of the hip and degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis is increasing in our aging population. Because the subjective complaints can be similar, it is often difficult to differentiate intra- and extra-articular hip pathology from degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. These conditions can present concurrently, which makes it challenging to determine the predominant underlying pain generator. A thorough history and physical examination, coupled with selective diagnostic testing, can be performed to differentiate between these clinical entities and help prioritize management. Determining the potential benefit from surgical intervention and the order in which to address these conditions are of utmost importance for patient satisfaction and adequate relief of symptoms.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Spine

      Management of Humeral Shaft Fractures

      Humeral shaft fractures account for approximately 3% of all fractures. Nonsurgical management of humeral shaft fractures with functional bracing gained popularity in the 1970s, and this method is arguably the standard of care for these fractures. Still, surgical management is indicated in certain situations, including polytraumatic injuries, open fractures, vascular injury, ipsilateral articular fractures, floating elbow injuries, and fractures that fail nonsurgical management. Surgical options include external fixation, open reduction and internal fixation, minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis, and antegrade or retrograde intramedullary nailing. Each of these techniques has advantages and disadvantages, and the rate of fracture union may vary based on the technique used. A relatively high incidence of radial nerve injury has been associated with surgical management of humeral shaft fractures. However, good surgical outcomes can be achieved with proper patient selection.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Trauma

          • Shoulder and Elbow

        Management of Posttraumatic Radioulnar Synostosis

        Posttraumatic radioulnar synostosis is a rare complication following fracture of the forearm and elbow. Risk factors for synostosis are related to the initial injury and surgical management of the fracture. Typically, patients present with complete loss of active and passive forearm pronation and supination. Evidence of bridging heterotopic bone between the radius and ulna can be seen on plain radiographs. Although nonsurgical management is sufficient in some cases, surgical excision is typically required. The timing of surgical intervention remains controversial. However, early resection between 6 and 12 months after the initial injury can be performed safely in patients with radiographic evidence of bony maturation. Surgical management consists of complete resection of the synostosis with optional interposition of biologic or synthetic materials to restore forearm rotation. A low recurrence rate can be achieved following primary radioulnar synostosis excision without the need for routine adjuvant prophylaxis.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Trauma

            • Hand and Wrist

          Neuralgic Amyotrophy (Parsonage-Turner Syndrome)

          Neuralgic amyotrophy (Parsonage-Turner syndrome or brachial plexus neuritis) is an uncommon syndrome whose cause is unknown. The suprascapular and axillary nerves and corresponding muscles are affected most frequently. The disorder exhibits a broad range of clinical manifestations, and patients frequently present to physicians of different subspecialties. Accurate diagnosis can be challenging and requires a thorough history and physical examination. Nerve conduction velocity and imaging studies assist in the evaluation. Treatment consists of symptomatic management. Symptoms can persist for more than than a year, but most patients note resolution of symptoms over time.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Shoulder and Elbow

            Surgical Simulation in Orthopaedic Skills Training

            Mastering rapidly evolving orthopaedic surgical techniques requires a lengthy period of training. Current work-hour restrictions and cost pressures force trainees to face the challenge of acquiring more complex surgical skills in a shorter amount of time. As a result, alternative methods to improve the surgical skills of orthopaedic trainees outside the operating room have been developed. These methods include hands-on training in a laboratory setting using synthetic bones or cadaver models as well as software tools and computerized simulators that enable trainees to plan and simulate orthopaedic operations in a three-dimensional virtual environment. Laboratory-based training offers potential benefits in the development of basic surgical skills, such as using surgical tools and implants appropriately, achieving competency in procedures that have a steep learning curve, and assessing already acquired skills while minimizing concerns for patient safety, operating room time, and financial constraints. Current evidence supporting the educational advantages of surgical simulation in orthopaedic skills training is limited. Despite this, positive effects on the overall education of orthopaedic residents, and on maintaining the proficiency of practicing orthopaedic surgeons, are anticipated.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Trauma

                • Sports Medicine

              Tissue Anchor Use in Arthroscopic Glenohumeral Surgery

              Arthroscopic surgery has become the mainstay of treatment of several common glenohumeral pathologies such as tears of the rotator cuff and labrum. Arthroscopic rotator cuff and labral repair provide outcomes comparable to those achieved with traditional open techniques, with the benefits of smaller incisions and less soft-tissue disruption. Development and improvement of tissue anchors and arthroscopic instrumentation has been integral to the increased popularity of arthroscopic glenohumeral repairs. Current anchors can be categorized by design and material composition. Awareness of the advantages and limitations of these implants may influence anchor selection.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Sports Medicine

                  • Shoulder and Elbow

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