JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 21, No. 12


Adhesive Capsulitis of the Hip: A Review

Adhesive capsulitis of the hip (ACH) is a rare clinical entity. Similar to adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder, ACH is characterized by a painful decrease in active and passive range of motion as synovial inflammation in the acute stages of the disease progresses to capsular fibrosis in the chronic stages. Once other diagnoses have been ruled out, management of ACH is tailored to reduce inflammation in the acute stages with NSAIDs, intra-articular steroid injections, and targeted physical therapy while biomechanical dysfunction in the spine, hip, sacroiliac joint, or lower limb joints is addressed. In chronic stages of the disease, intervention should focus on decreasing the progression of fibrotic changes and regaining range of motion through aggressive physical therapy. Interventions described for chronic ACH include manipulation under anesthesia; pressure dilatation; and open or arthroscopic synovectomy, lysis of adhesions, and capsular release. Surgical intervention should be considered only after failure of a minimum 3-month course of nonsurgical treatment.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Sports Medicine

    Early Weight Bearing After Lower Extremity Fractures in Adults

    Weight-bearing protocols should optimize fracture healing while avoiding fracture displacement or implant failure. Biomechanical and animal studies indicate that early loading is beneficial, but high-quality clinical studies comparing weight-bearing protocols after lower extremity fractures are not universally available. For certain fracture patterns, well-designed trials suggest that patients with normal protective sensation can safely bear weight sooner than most protocols permit. Several randomized, controlled trials of surgically treated ankle fractures have shown no difference in outcomes between immediate and delayed (≥6 weeks) weight bearing. Retrospective series have reported low complication rates with immediate weight bearing following intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures and following surgical management of femoral neck and intertrochanteric femur fractures in elderly patients. For other fracture patterns, particularly periarticular fractures, the evidence in favor of early weight bearing is less compelling. Most surgeons recommend a period of protected weight bearing for patients with calcaneal, tibial plafond, tibial plateau, and acetabular fractures. Further studies are warranted to better define optimal postoperative weight-bearing protocols.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Trauma

        • Adult Reconstruction

      Fingertip Injuries: An Update on Management

      Injuries to the fingertip are common. The goal of treatment is restoration of a painless, functional digit with protective sensation. The amount of soft-tissue loss, the integrity of the nail bed, and the age and physical demands of the patient should be considered when selecting a treatment method. Some new products are effective for management of injuries to the fingertip. The use of 2-octylcyanoacrylate for nail bed repair is faster than suture repair, with equivalent results reported. Dermal regeneration template is effective for coverage of digital injuries with exposed tendons or bones that lack peritenon or periosteum. Although fingertip replantation offers better functional results than does revision amputation, replantation is more technically demanding and requires longer recovery time. Complications associated with management of injuries to the fingertip include nail deformities, insensate digits, and painful neuromas.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Hand and Wrist

        Iatrogenic Nerve Injuries in Shoulder Surgery

        The range of open and arthroscopic shoulder procedures continues to evolve and expand. Despite advances in instrumentation and technology, complications still exist and neurologic injury remains an inherent part of these procedures. Iatrogenic nerve injuries are among the more commonly cited complications associated with shoulder surgery. Various surgical procedures about the shoulder are known to place the brachial plexus and peripheral motor nerves at risk. Peripheral nerve monitoring has been helpful in identifying specific surgical steps and key anatomic regions that are susceptible to iatrogenic nerve injury.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Shoulder and Elbow

          Optimizing the Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears

          The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) on Optimizing the Management of Full-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears (RC). Evidence-based information, in conjunction with clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The RC AUC Writing Panel began the development of the clinical scenarios by identifying clinical indications typical of patients commonly presenting with full-thickness rotator cuff tears in clinical practice, as well as from the current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and its supporting literature. The 432 patient scenarios and 5 treatments were developed by the Writing Panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, the Review Panel, a separate group of volunteer physicians, independently reviewed these materials to ensure that they were representative of patient scenarios that clinicians are likely to encounter in daily practice. Finally, the multidisciplinary Voting Panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), may be appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or rarely appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

              • Subspecialty:
              • Shoulder and Elbow

            Pediatric Thoracolumbar Spine Trauma

            Thoracolumbar spine trauma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Special attention to this population is necessary because several unique features of the growing pediatric spine separate these patients from adult patients. These injuries are frequently associated with high-energy trauma and concurrent thoracic or abdominal injuries that require coordinated multidisciplinary care. Thoracolumbar spine trauma in pediatric patients may lead to compression fractures, burst fractures, flexion-distraction injuries (ie, Chance fracture), fracture-dislocation injuries, apophyseal fractures/herniations, and spinous process and transverse process fractures. Depending on the nature of the injury and the patient's level of skeletal maturity, thoracolumbar spinal injuries may have substantial ability to heal and remodel. Because the impact of thoracolumbar spinal injury on pediatric patients can be devastating, appropriate early diagnosis and management, as well as long-term follow-up, are imperative.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Trauma

                • Pediatric Orthopaedics

                • Spine

              Platelet-rich Plasma in Orthopaedic Applications: Evidence-based Recommendations for Treatment

              Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapies have seen a dramatic increase in breadth and frequency of use for orthopaedic conditions in the past 5 years. Rich in many growth factors that have important implications in healing, PRP can potentially regenerate tissue via multiple mechanisms. Proposed clinical and surgical applications include spinal fusion, chondropathy, knee osteoarthritis, tendinopathy, acute and chronic soft-tissue injuries, enhancement of healing after ligament reconstruction, and muscle strains. However, for many conditions, there is limited reliable clinical evidence to guide the use of PRP. Furthermore, classification systems and identification of differences among products are needed to understand the implications of variability.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Sports Medicine

                  • Shoulder and Elbow

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