JAAOS, Volume 22, No. 1

Extended Indications for Foot and Ankle Arthroscopy

Advances in foot and ankle arthroscopy have allowed surgeons to diagnose and treat a broadening array of disorders that were previously limited to open procedures. Arthroscopy of the posterior ankle, subtalar joint, and first metatarsophalangeal joint and tendoscopy can be used to address common foot and ankle ailments, with the potential benefits of decreased pain, fast recovery, and low complication rates. Posterior ankle and subtalar arthroscopy can be used to manage impingement, arthrofibrosis, synovitis, arthritis, fractures, and osteochondral defects. First metatarsophalangeal joint arthroscopy can address osteophytes, chronic synovitis, osteochondral defects, and degenerative joint disease. Tendoscopy is a minimally invasive alternative for evaluation and débridement of the Achilles, posterior tibial, flexor hallucis longus, and peroneal tendons.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Foot and Ankle

    Extremity War Injuries VIII: Sequelae of Combat Injuries

    The 2013 Extremity War Injury symposium focused on the sequelae of combat-related injuries, including posttraumatic osteoarthritis, amputations, and infections. Much remains to be learned about posttraumatic arthritis, and there are few circumstances in which a definitive arthroplasty should be performed in an acutely injured and open joint. Although the last decade has seen tremendous advances in the treatment of combat upper extremity injuries, many questions remain unanswered, and continued research focusing on improving reconstruction of large segmental defects remains critical. Discussion of infection centered on the need for novel methods to reduce the bacterial load following the initial débridement procedures. Novel methods of delivering antimicrobial therapy and anti-inflammatory medications directly to the wound were discussed as well as the need for near real-time assessment of bacterial and fungal burden and further means of prevention and treatment of biofilm formation and the importance of animal models to test therapies discussed. Moderators and lecturers of focus groups noted the continuing need for improved prehospital care in the management of junctional injuries, identified optimal strategies for both surgical repair and/or reconstruction of the ligaments in multiligamentous injuries, and noted the need to mitigate bone mineral density loss following amputation and/or limb salvage as well as the necessity of developing better methods of anticipating and managing heterotopic ossification.

        High-pressure Injection Injuries to the Hand

        The severity of high-pressure injection injuries to the hand is often underappreciated on initial presentation. These injuries require urgent and thorough surgical débridement. Despite the advances in our understanding of this injury type and the decline in amputation rates, the risk of long-term morbidity with diminished function and chronic symptoms remains high, and the role of systemic steroids in treatment is uncertain. Functional outcome of the hand and upper extremity following high-pressure injection injuries depends on a number of factors, including the magnitude of the initial wounding force, the chemical properties and volume of the substance injected, the presence of secondary infection, and the timing and thoroughness of débridement. Further investigation is required to determine the relative significance of these factors and the effectiveness of steroids in treatment.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Hand and Wrist

          Joint-preserving Surgical Options for Management of Chondral Injuries of the Hip

          Management of injuries to the articular cartilage is complex and challenging; it becomes especially problematic in weight-bearing joints such as the hip. Several causes of articular cartilage damage have been described, including trauma, labral tears, and femoroacetabular impingement, among others. Because articular cartilage has little capacity for healing, nonsurgical management options are limited. Surgical options include total hip arthroplasty, microfracture, articular cartilage repair, autologous chondrocyte implantation, mosaicplasty, and osteochondral allograft transplantation. Advances in hip arthroscopy have broadened the spectrum of tools available for diagnosis and management of chondral damage. However, the literature is still not sufficiently robust to draw firm conclusions regarding best practices for chondral defects. Additional research is needed to expand our knowledge of and develop guidelines for management of chondral injuries of the hip.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Sports Medicine

            Pathogenesis and Prevention of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis After Intra-articular Fracture

            Posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) occurs after traumatic injury to the joint. It is most common following injuries that disrupt the articular surface or lead to joint instability. The reported risk of PTOA following significant joint trauma is as high as 75%; articular fractures can increase the risk more than 20-fold. Despite recent advances in surgical management, the incidence of PTOA following intra-articular fractures has remained relatively unchanged over the last few decades. Pathogenesis of PTOA after intra-articular fracture is likely multifactorial and may be associated with acute cartilage injury as well as chronic joint overload secondary to instability, incongruity, and malalignment. Additional studies are needed to better elucidate how these factors contribute to the development of PTOA and to develop advanced treatment algorithms that consist of both acute biologic interventions targeted to decrease inflammation and cellular death in response to injury and improved surgical methods to restore stability, congruity, and alignment.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Trauma

                • Adult Reconstruction

              Rehabilitation Following Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Review of Current Literature

              Physical rehabilitation following arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has conventionally involved a 4- to 6-week period of immobilization; there are two schools of thought regarding activity level during this period. Some authors encourage early, more aggressive rehabilitation along with the use of a continuous passive motion device; others propose later, more conservative rehabilitation. Although some studies report trends in improved early range of motion, pain relief, and outcomes scores with aggressive rehabilitation following rotator cuff repair, no definitive consensus exists supporting a clinical difference resulting from rehabilitation timing in the early stages of healing. Rehabilitation timing does not affect outcomes after 6 to 12 months postoperatively. Given the lack of information regarding which patient groups benefit from aggressive rehabilitation, individualized patient care is warranted.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Shoulder and Elbow

                The Role of Cytokines in Posttraumatic Arthritis

                The development of arthritis after joint injury is commonly known as posttraumatic arthritis (PTA). The inciting traumatic event may range from cartilage contusion and bone bruise combined with meniscus or ligament tear, to intra-articular fracture. End-stage PTA is often indistinguishable from primary osteoarthritis. However, knowing the time of the inciting traumatic event in a patient with PTA provides an opportunity to understand the events following joint injury that lead to the progression of arthritis. Joint injury often leads to mechanical alterations in loading of the injured joint, and restoration of joint mechanics through surgical repair remains an important aspect of treatment. However, the accuracy of joint reduction by itself does not account for the variability in outcome following joint injury, as evidenced by the fact that PTA remains a significant clinical problem. Emerging research in animal models and human subjects indicates that several inflammatory cytokines and related inflammatory mediators are elevated following joint injury. Data from animal studies and early clinical trials suggest that early inhibition of the intra-articular inflammatory response may improve clinical outcomes.

                    • Subspecialty:
                    • Trauma

                    • Basic Science