JAAOS, Volume 22, No. 4

Congenital Fibular Deficiency

Congenital fibular deficiency (CFD) is characterized by a wide spectrum of manifestations ranging from mild limb length inequality (LLI) to severe shortening, with foot and ankle deformities and associated anomalies. The etiology of CFD remains unclear. Treatment goals are to achieve normal weight bearing, a functional plantigrade foot, and equal limb length. The recent Birch classification system has been proposed to provide a treatment guide: the functionality of the foot, LLI, and associated anomalies should be taken into account for decision-making. Treatment options include orthosis or epiphysiodesis, Syme or Boyd amputation and prosthetic rehabilitation, limb lengthening procedures, and foot and ankle reconstruction. The outcome of amputation for severe forms of CFD has shown favorable results and fewer complications compared with those of limb lengthening. Nevertheless, advances in the limb lengthening techniques may change our approach to treating patients with CFD and might extend the indications for reconstructive procedures to the treatment of severe LLI and foot deformities.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Pediatric Orthopaedics

    Metatarsophalangeal Joint Instability of the Lesser Toes and Plantar Plate Deficiency

    Our understanding of lesser toe metatarsophalangeal joint instability has increased substantially over the past few decades. Some recent articles on the subject have provided detailed anatomic descriptions that help to characterize the primary stabilizing structures of the joint. Some surgeons now advocate the incorporation of a primary repair of the plantar plate into the surgical plan for correction of metatarsophalangeal joint deviation in the sagittal and transverse planes. New surgical techniques have been developed to expose, inspect, and reliably repair the plantar plate, if necessary. Dorsal and plantar approaches have both been used successfully to repair the plantar plate. Tears of the plantar plate can be repaired primarily or advanced on the base of the proximal phalanx through bone tunnels. Outcomes of these procedures are promising, with improvements in pain and function reported along with sustained deformity correction.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Foot and Ankle

      Non-Arthroplasty Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

      The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed an Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) on the Non-Arthroplasty Treatment of Osteoarthritis of the Knee (OAK). Evidence-based information, in conjunction with clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The OAK AUC clinical scenarios were derived from patient indications that generally accompany OAK as well as from the current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and its supporting literature. The 576 patient scenarios and 10 treatments were developed by the Writing Panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, the Review Panel, a separate group of volunteer physicians, independently reviewed these materials to ensure that they were representative of patient scenarios clinicians are likely to encounter in daily practice. Finally, the multidisciplinary Voting Panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3). The final appropriateness ratings assigned by the voting panel can be accessed online via the AAOS OAK AUC web-based mobile application at: www.aaos.org/aucapp.

          Oncologic Conditions That Simulate Common Sports Injuries

          Primary bone and soft-tissue tumors that mimic common sports injuries are relatively rare and are not often encountered by most orthopaedists. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of these tumors is crucial to maximize the clinical outcome. Many bone and soft-tissue tumors present disproportionately in young and active patients who are often involved in athletic activities. Thus, the clinician may misdiagnose these rare tumors as more common sports injuries. Symptoms that should raise suspicion for a neoplastic process include pain unrelated to activity and a clinical course that does not follow the typically expected recovery for a common sports injury. An awareness of the salient features of several bone and soft-tissue tumors as well as nononcologic processes that may simulate sports injuries can aid clinicians in the prompt diagnosis and clinical decision making of these rare tumors.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Sports Medicine

            Pelvic Resection: Current Concepts

            Pelvic resection is a technique that involves surgical resection of portions of the pelvic girdle. Historically, this procedure was known as internal hemipelvectomy. Hemipelvectomy is a resection that includes the ipsilateral limb. The main indication for these procedures is primary malignant tumors of the pelvis, but in rare cases they are indicated for metastatic lesions, infection, or trauma. Reconstruction is dictated by the extent of the resection and the remaining structures. Surgical technique is dictated by histology of the tumor and location of the lesion. A multidisciplinary team is required. The patient and family should undergo counseling preoperatively to discuss morbidity and mortality, the extensive rehabilitation process, and life expectancy.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Musculoskeletal Oncology

              Surgical Management of Lumbar Degenerative Spondylolisthesis

              Lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is a common cause of low back pain, radiculopathy, and/or neurogenic claudication. Treatment begins with a trial of nonsurgical methods, including physical therapy, NSAIDs, and epidural corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment with decompression and fusion is recommended for patients who do not respond to this initial regimen. Although much has been published in the past two decades on the surgical management of DS, the optimal method remains controversial. Interbody fusion may improve arthrodesis rates and can be performed via numerous surgical approaches. Minimally invasive techniques continue to be developed. Particular attention to surgical management of DS in the elderly is warranted given the increasing numbers of elderly persons. Healthcare utilization in the future must take into account evidence-based medicine that establishes clinically effective practices while simultaneously being cost effective.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Spine