JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 25, No. 5


Bone Loss in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: Evaluation and Management

With the increasing number of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures being performed annually, the burden of revision surgery is also expected to increase. Addressing bone loss during revision TKA is a considerable challenge that requires proper preoperative evaluation and surgical planning. In addition to an assessment of femoral and tibial bone loss, a systematic approach to the management of bone loss associated with TKA includes careful implant selection, adherence to the general principles of revision TKA, and an understanding of the available reconstruction options. These options include cement with screws, morcellized allograft, bulk structural allograft, modular wedges, block augments, porous metal cones or sleeves, and megaprostheses.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Knee

    Cartilage Restoration Techniques for the Patellofemoral Joint

    Symptomatic osteochondral lesions of the patellofemoral joint are clinically challenging to manage because of the limited healing potential of articular cartilage; the complex morphology of the patellofemoral joint; the heterogeneity of the articular surface between patients; and high stresses across the joint, which can be altered by malalignment, tilt, or maltracking. Indications for surgery include traumatic lesions, osteochondritis dissecans, and high-grade chondromalacia in association with persistent pain despite a course of nonsurgical management. Various techniques have been described for managing symptomatic osteochondral lesions of the patellofemoral joint, including microfracture, osteochondral autograft transplantation, and biologic cell transplantation, including autologous chondrocyte implantation. Salvage techniques (eg, fresh allograft) may provide satisfactory outcomes after a failed attempt at surgical management. Irrespective of the surgical technique used, outcomes are generally worse in the patellofemoral compartment than in the tibiofemoral joint. The concomitant management of associated pathology, including patellar malalignment, is recommended because it has been shown to improve the success of cartilage restoration procedures.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Sports Medicine

      Functional and Clinical Outcomes of Nonsurgically Managed Tibial Plateau Fractures

      Introduction: This study sought to assess and compare long-term functional and clinical outcomes in patients with tibial plateau fractures that are treated nonsurgically.

      Methods: Over a period of 8 years, 305 consecutive tibial plateau fractures were treated by three surgeons at a single institution and followed prospectively in an Institutional Review Board–approved study. Overall, 41 patients (13%) were treated nonsurgically and 37 were available for follow-up. Indications for nonsurgical management were minimal fracture displacement or preclusion of surgery because of comorbidities. A series of univariate retrospective analyses were used to identify individual risk factors potentially predictive of Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment scores.

      Results: Thirty-seven patients were included with a mean follow-up of 21 ± 14.9 months. Overall, 59% of patients (n = 22) attained good to excellent functional outcomes. In patients for whom surgery was precluded because of comorbidities, outcome scores were significantly poorer (38.8 ± 23.0 versus 12.7 ± 14.2; P = 0.001). Surgery precluded by a factor other than minimal fracture displacement predicted poor outcome (P = 0.002).

      Discussion: Carefully selected patients with minimally displaced tibial plateau fractures can expect good to excellent outcomes when treated nonsurgically.

      Level of Evidence: Level III, retrospective comparative study

          • Subspecialty:
          • Trauma

        Misaligned Versus Straight Placement of Anterior Cervical Plates: A Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes Study

        Background: In anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF), misaligned plates are concerning because of the risk of screw-and-plate failure; however, these plates also hypothetically have the potential for asymmetric micromotion on the facet and uncovertebral joint. The aim of this study was to determine whether misaligned plate placement during ACDF had clinical benefits compared with straight plate placement.

        Methods: Postoperative AP radiographs of 128 consecutive patients who underwent ACDF with anterior cervical plate (ACP) fixation were reviewed, and plate alignment was assessed. Patients were separated into control group 1 (straight plates) or group 2 (misaligned plates).

        Results: The mean age of patients was 51.5 ± 0.9 years, and women represented 51% of the total population. There was no significant difference between groups with regard to the preoperative visual analog scale (VAS) and Neck Disability Index (NDI) scores (P = 0.744 and P = 0.943, respectively). At 6 weeks postoperatively, the VAS scores for group 1 decreased from 7.6 ± 0.2 to 4.0 ± 0.2 compared with the scores in group 2, which decreased from 7.7 ± 0.2 to 2.1 ± 0.1, which demonstrated statistical significance (P = 0.019). At 2-year follow-up, no significant difference was demonstrated between the groups’ VAS and NDI scores (P = 0.670 and P = 0.266).

        Conclusion: Misaligned plates have increased torsional strength and are associated with better clinical outcomes compared with those of straight plates in the early postoperative period. After fusion, no significant difference in clinical outcomes between the groups was noted, which may reduce the concerns regarding misaligned plates.

        Level of Evidence: Retrospective comparative study

            • Subspecialty:
            • Spine

          Pediatric Acute Compartment Syndrome

          Pediatric acute compartment syndrome (PACS) is a clinical entity that must be carefully differentiated from the adult version (ie, acute compartment syndrome). Healthcare providers must understand the variable etiologies of PACS, of which trauma is the most common but can also include vascular insult, infection, surgical positioning, neonatal phenomena, overexertion, and snake and insect bites. In addition to the unique etiologies of PACS, providers must also recognize the different signs and symptoms of PACS. The three As (ie, anxiety, agitation, analgesic requirement) of PACS have supplanted the classic adult signs as being more accurate and allowing earlier detection. In children with questionable clinical signs but concern for PACS, compartment pressure measurement may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Overall, outcomes after fasciotomy in children tend to be excellent; however, diagnostic delays secondary to unfamiliar clinical scenarios can lead to myonecrosis and subsequent poor outcomes.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Pediatric Orthopaedics

            Pelvic Discontinuity Associated With Total Hip Arthroplasty: Evaluation and Management

            Pelvic discontinuity is a challenging complication encountered during revision total hip arthroplasty. Pelvic discontinuity is defined as a separation of the ilium superiorly from the ischiopubic segment inferiorly and is typically a chronic condition in failed total hip arthroplasties in the setting of bone loss. After a history and a physical examination have been completed and infection has been ruled out, appropriate imaging must be obtained, including plain hip radiographs, oblique Judet radiographs, and often a CT scan. The main management options are a hemispheric acetabular component with posterior column plating, a cup-cage construct, pelvic distraction, and a custom triflange construct. The techniques have unique pros and cons, but the goals are to obtain stable and durable acetabular component fixation and a healed or unitized pelvis while minimizing complications.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Hip

                • Pelvis

              Physical Examination of the Knee: Meniscus, Cartilage, and Patellofemoral Conditions

              The knee is one of the most commonly injured joints in the body. Its superficial anatomy enables diagnosis of the injury through a thorough history and physical examination. Examination techniques for the knee described decades ago are still useful, as are more recently developed tests. Proper use of these techniques requires understanding of the anatomy and biomechanical principles of the knee as well as the pathophysiology of the injuries, including tears to the menisci and extensor mechanism, patellofemoral conditions, and osteochondritis dissecans. Nevertheless, the clinical validity and accuracy of the diagnostic tests vary. Advanced imaging studies may be useful adjuncts.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Sports Medicine

                Scapulothoracic Dissociation: Evaluation and Management

                Scapulothoracic dissociation is a rare, potentially limb- and life-threatening injury of the shoulder girdle. The injury is characterized by lateral displacement of the scapula resulting from traumatic disruption of the scapulothoracic articulation. The typical physical examination findings consist of substantial swelling of the shoulder girdle, along with weakness, numbness, and pulselessness in the ipsilateral upper extremity. Radiographic evaluation includes measurement of the scapular index on a nonrotated chest radiograph and assessment for either a distracted clavicle fracture or a disrupted acromioclavicular or sternoclavicular joint. Although vascular injury occurs in most patients, emergent surgery is performed only in patients with either limb-threatening ischemia or active arterial hemorrhage. Management of neurologic injury can be delayed if necessary. The location and severity of neurologic injury determine whether observation, nerve grafting, nerve transfer, or above-elbow amputation is performed. Skeletal stabilization procedures include plate fixation of clavicle fractures and reduction of distracted acromioclavicular or sternoclavicular joints. The extent of neurologic injury determines clinical outcomes. Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form scores are significantly lower in patients with complete brachial plexus avulsion injury than in patients with postganglionic injury.

                    • Subspecialty:
                    • Trauma

                  Total Knee Arthroplasty in Patients With Cerebral Palsy: A Matched Cohort Study to Patients With Osteoarthritis

                  Introduction: Currently, few data examine the use of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients with cerebral palsy (CP). This study reviewed the outcomes of TKA in patients with CP compared with a matched cohort undergoing TKA for primary osteoarthritis.

                  Methods: Over a 28-year period, 15 TKAs in patients with a diagnosis of CP were identified. The cohort was 53% men, with a mean age of 58 years. Patients with CP were matched 1:2 based on age, sex, body mass index, and year of surgery with a group of patients undergoing TKA for osteoarthritis.

                  Results: No difference was reported in implant survival (P = 0.27) or revision surgery (P = 0.79) between groups. All patients were ambulatory postoperatively, and significant increases were noted in the Knee Society score (P < 0.0001) and functional assessment (P = 0.003).

                  Discussion: TKA is a safe, durable procedure in patients with CP to improve pain and function.

                      • Subspecialty:
                      • Knee

                    Treatment of Hip Fractures in the Elderly

                    Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) document Treatment of Hip Fractures in the Elderly to improve patient care and obtain optimal outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from indications typical of patients commonly presenting with hip fractures in clinical practice, as well as from current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and supporting literature. The 30 patient scenarios and 6 treatments were developed by the Writing Panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. A separate, multidisciplinary Voting Panel made up of specialists and nonspecialists rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

                        • Subspecialty:
                        • Hip

                      Treatment of Pregnant Patients With Orthopaedic Trauma

                      Fracture management in pregnant patients is challenging. Anatomic and physiologic changes in pregnancy increase the complexity of treatment. Maternal trauma increases the risk of fetal loss, preterm birth, placental abruption, cesarean delivery, and maternal death. Initial resuscitation and treatment in a facility equipped to handle the orthopaedic injury and preterm births are paramount. Pelvic and acetabular injuries are potentially life threatening. The benefits and risks of surgical treatment must be carefully considered. The risks posed by anesthetic agents, antibiotic agents, anticoagulant agents, and radiation exposure must be understood. Positioning of the patient can affect the viability of the fetus. If surgery is necessary, the left lateral decubitus position decreases fetal hypotension. A specialized team including an obstetrician, perinatologist, orthopaedic surgeon, general trauma surgeon, critical care specialist, emergency medicine specialist, anesthesiologist, radiologist, and nurse must collaborate to improve maternal and fetal outcomes.

                          • Subspecialty:
                          • Trauma

                        Advertisements

                        Advertisement