JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 4, No. 3


Acute and Chronic Instability of the Elbow.

Elbow instability is not a single entity, but rather a spectrum of injuries, both acute and chronic. While acute instability is usually quite easily diagnosed and treated, in virtually all instances the chronic condition is much more problematic. Nonoperative treatment and early motion are recommended for acute injuries. An associated fracture decreases the likelihood of a good result. A thorough knowledge of the normal and pathologic anatomy, as well as a clear understanding of the osseous and soft-tissue reconstructive options, is essential, particularly for the proper management of recurrent and chronic elbow instability. Even for patients with the latter, however, reasonable treatment options are available.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Shoulder and Elbow

      • Hand and Wrist

      • Basic Science

    Acute Pelvic Fractures: I. Causation and Classification.

    Acute pelvic fractures are potentially lethal, even with modern techniques of poly-trauma care. The appropriate treatment of such fractures is dependent on a thorough understanding of the anatomic features of the pelvic region and the biomechanical basis of the various types of lesions. Although the anterior structures, the symphysis pubis and the pubic rami, contribute approximately 40% to the stiffness of the pelvis, clinical and biomechanical studies have shown that the posterior sacroiliac complex is more important to pelvic-ring stability. Therefore, the classification of pelvic fractures is based on the stability of the posterior lesion. In type A fractures, the pelvic ring is stable. The partially stable type B lesions, such as "open-book" and "bucket-handle" fractures, are caused by external- and internal-rotation forces, respectively. In type C injuries, there is complete disruption of the posterior sacroiliac complex. These unstable fractures are almost always caused by high-energy severe trauma associated with motor vehicle accidents, falls from a height, or crushing injuries. Type A and type B fractures make up 70% to 80% of all pelvic injuries. Because of the complexity of injuries that most often result in acute pelvic fractures, they should be considered in the context of polytrauma management, rather than in isolation. Any classification system must therefore be seen only as a general guide to treatment. The management of each patient requires careful, individualized decision making.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Trauma

        • Basic Science

      Acute Pelvic Fractures: II. Principles of Management.

      The past two decades have seen many advances in pelvic-trauma surgery. Provisional fixation of unstable pelvic-ring disruptions and open-book fractures with a pelvic clamp or an external frame with a supracondylar pin has proved markedly beneficial in the resuscitative phase of management. In the completely unstable pelvis, external clamps and frames can act only as provisional fixation and should be combined with skeletal traction. The traction pin is usually used only until a definitive form of stabilization can be applied to keep the pelvic ring in a reduced position. If the patient is too ill to allow operative intervention, the traction pin can remain in place with the external frame as definitive treatment. Symphyseal disruptions and medial ramus fractures should be plated at the time of laparotomy. Lateral ramus fractures can usually be controlled with external frames. A role has been suggested for percutaneous retrograde fixation of the superior pubic ramus; however, the benefits to be gained may not be enough to outweigh the serious risks of penetrating the hip, and this technique should therefore be used only by surgeons trained in its performance. The techniques for posterior fixation are becoming more standardized, but all still carry significant risks, especially to neurologic structures.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Trauma

          • Basic Science

        An Approach to Work-Related Disorders of the Upper Extremity.

        Management of work-related musculoskeletal disorders has been frustrating for the orthopaedist. The so-called cumulative-trauma disorders have few objective findings, and patients often do not respond to well-established orthopaedic treatments, both nonsurgical and surgical. In some areas of the country the rate of reimbursement is low; that factor, combined with the excessive paperwork and the legal burden, discourages many orthopaedists from treating patients with these conditions. However, the incidence and cost of work-related disorders continue to increase, and the orthopaedic community is being called on to help understand their etiology and to attempt to control the "epidemic" that has significantly affected the survival of certain industries. The authors review the current orthopaedic and occupational medicine literature and suggest a management approach that has been found effective in reducing both costs and disability due to these disorders.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Shoulder and Elbow

            • Hand and Wrist

          Congenital Deformities of the Upper Extremity.

          Congenital deformities of the upper extremity are rare. They are often associated with other, more severe disorders of the cardiovascular, craniofacial, neurologic, and musculoskeletal systems. Most upper-extremity congenital anomalies are minor and cause no functional deficits, and surgical reconstruction is therefore unnecessary. If a severe cosmetic deformity is present or there is significant functional compromise, surgical treatment is indicated. The authors review the common congenital deformities of the upper extremity and offer treatment recommendations.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Pediatric Orthopaedics

              • General Orthopaedics

            Popliteal Cysts: Historical Background and Current Knowledge.

            Popliteal cysts were first described in 1840 by Adams, but it is from Baker's writing in 1877 that we derive the commonly used eponymic term "Baker's cyst." Associated intra-articular lesions are very common with popliteal cysts. Ultra-sonography, arthrography, and magnetic resonance imaging have all proved useful in distinguishing popliteal cysts from other cysts and from soft-tissue tumors about the knee, as well as in identifying coexisting intra-articular lesions. Cysts in pediatric patients are generally self-limited and should be treated conservatively. In the adult population, treatment is primarily nonsurgical. Arthroscopic evaluation is indicated if an intra-articular lesion is causing mechanical symptoms or if there is no response to appropriate conservative treatment, such as use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and compression sleeves. Surgical excision is reserved for cases in which this approach has been unsuccessful.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Sports Medicine

                • Pediatric Orthopaedics

              Advertisements

              Advertisement