JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 7, No. 6


Benign bone tumors of childhood.

The diagnosis of a bone tumor in a child can be a source of great anxiety for the patient, the parents, and the treating physician. Fortunately, most bone tumors in children are benign. Although there are a variety of benign bone tumors that affect skeletally immature patients, most have such characteristic clinical and radiographic presentations that the diagnosis can be made with reasonable accuracy without a biopsy. However, some benign bone tumors can simulate a malignant process and may be best handled by referral to a person trained in orthopaedic oncology for additional evaluation. Treatment alternatives are in part related to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society stage of the lesion. Recurrences of certain lesions, such as aneurysmal bone cysts and osteoblastomas, can be problematic. By becoming familiar with the presentation of the more common benign bone tumors in children, physicians will be able to alleviate fears, establish a diagnosis, and make treatment recommendations in the most effective manner.

    • Keywords:
    • Bone Neoplasms|Bone and Bones|Child|Humans|Magnetic Resonance Imaging|Tomography

    • X-Ray Computed

    • Subspecialty:
    • Pediatric Orthopaedics

    • Musculoskeletal Oncology

Degenerative arthritis of the knee in active patients: evaluation and management.

The natural history and treatment of degenerative arthritis of the knee in active patients is a topic of great interest, with continually evolving concepts and techniques. Osteoarthritis is a spectrum of clinical entities, ranging from focal chondral defects to established arthrosis resulting from biologic and biomechanical hyaline cartilage failure. Evaluation of the active patient with knee arthritis should include a comprehensive history emphasizing symptom manifestation, activity level, and previous surgical treatment. The physical examination must include an evaluation of extremity alignment, gait patterns, and coexisting disorders of the spine and adjacent joints. Diagnostic testing is usually straightforward and should include the 45-degree flexion weight-bearing posteroanterior plain radiograph. Nonsurgical treatment modalities include rehabilitation, lifestyle modification, bracing, supportive devices, and medical management, including use of the new chondroprotective oral and injectable agents. Several surgical options exist, each with specific indications. Arthroscopic debridement can provide a positive, but often short-lived, reduction in the severity of symptoms. Tibial or femoral osteotomy may maintain the patient's active lifestyle and delay the need for arthroplasty. Unicompartmental and total knee arthroplasty can each provide reliable relief of symptoms but may not permit a return to the activities that the patient values.

    • Keywords:
    • Arthroplasty

    • Replacement

    • Knee|Arthroscopy|Humans|Knee Joint|Osteoarthritis

    • Knee|Osteotomy|Tibia

    • Subspecialty:
    • Adult Reconstruction

Femoral preparation in cemented total hip arthroplasty: reaming or broaching?

Surgical techniques continue to be refined to improve the results of primary cemented total hip arthroplasty. Although there has been much research in the areas of cementation and implant design, little work has specifically addressed how bone preparation can be optimized on the femoral side. On the basis of available scientific data, it appears that the broach-only system has several potential advantages over the traditional ream-and-broach technique. Broaching is usually faster, leaves behind more bone stock, and may improve both microinterlock and macrointerlock. Additionally, the excess bone resulting from broaching without reaming does not seem to compromise fixation at the bone-cement interface. Such differences may become even more important as the indications for cemented hip arthroplasty broaden to include increasingly younger and more active patients, because revision in these individuals is likely. In most cases, reaming is probably counterproductive, although it may be advantageous when used to open the femoral canal, to prevent varus stem orientation, and to manage sclerosis or deformity of bone due to a preexisting hip disorder or the presence of internal fixation devices. Regardless of which method is chosen, good bone surface cleansing and cement penetration remain paramount. More studies comparing reamed and nonreamed preparation are necessary to resolve this controversial issue definitively.

    • Keywords:
    • Arthroplasty

    • Replacement

    • Hip|Cementation|Femur|Humans|Prosthesis Failure

    • Subspecialty:
    • Adult Reconstruction

Fractures of the base of the first metacarpal: current treatment options.

Fractures of the thumb metacarpal occur most frequently at the base. These fractures can be subdivided into intra-articular and extra-articular types. Intra-articular fractures present treatment challenges because they have a tendency to displace due to deforming forces acting at the base of the thumb. An understanding of the anatomy, biomechanics, and fracture pattern will aid in deciding on the best treatment option for each fracture type. Surgical treatment is recommended for unstable fractures. Anatomic restoration of the articular surface in Bennett and Rolando fractures is not essential to obtain a good functional result. However, reduction should be 1 mm or less to reduce the risk of radiographic arthritis. Malunion of these fractures may result in long-term disability. Closed reduction and percutaneous Kirschner-wire fixation is generally the appropriate treatment for a Bennett fracture. Rolando fractures can be treated with either open reduction and internal fixation or external fixation, depending on the size of the fracture fragments. In the case of severely comminuted intra-articular fractures, articular impaction has been implicated as one of the causes of posttraumatic arthritis. It is difficult to restore the articular surface in these injuries. Therefore, external fixation can be considered when the fracture fragments are small and there is significant soft-tissue injury.

    • Keywords:
    • Algorithms|Fracture Fixation|Fractures

    • Bone|Humans|Metacarpus

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Hand and Wrist

    • Basic Science

Suprascapular neuropathy.

Suprascapular neuropathy is an uncommon cause of shoulder pain and weakness and therefore may be overlooked as an etiologic factor. The suprascapular nerve is vulnerable to compression at the suprascapular notch as well as at the spinoglenoid notch. Other causes of suprascapular neuropathy include traction injury at the level of the transverse scapular ligament or the spinoglenoid ligament and direct trauma to the nerve. Sports involving overhead motion, such as tennis, swimming, and weight lifting, may result in traction injury to the suprascapular nerve, leading to dysfunction. The diagnosis of suprascapular neuropathy is based on clinical findings and abnormal electrodiagnostic test results, after the exclusion of other causes of shoulder pain and weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging may provide an anatomic demonstration of nerve entrapment and muscle atrophy. With this modality, ganglion cysts are recognized with increasing frequency as a source of external compression of the suprascapular nerve. Without evidence of a discrete lesion compressing the nerve, nonoperative treatment should include physical therapy and avoidance of precipitating activities. When nonoperative treatment fails to alleviate symptoms or when a discrete lesion such as a ganglion cyst is present, surgical decompression is warranted. Decompression gives reliable pain relief, but recovery of shoulder function and restoration of atrophied muscle tissue may be incomplete.

    • Keywords:
    • Humans|Nerve Compression Syndromes|Peripheral Nerves|Peripheral Nervous System Diseases|Shoulder|Shoulder Pain

    • Subspecialty:
    • Sports Medicine

    • Shoulder and Elbow

    • Pain Management

Surgical management of cervical radiculopathy.

Cervical radiculopathy presents as pain in a dermatomal distribution. Despite conservative nonoperative therapy, a large subset of patients will require surgical intervention. Indications for surgery include recalcitrant radiculopathy despite nonoperative treatment for more than 6 weeks and progressive motor deficit or disabling motor deficit (deltoid palsy, wrist drop) prior to 6 weeks. Anterior and posterior approaches have both yielded successful results in appropriately selected patients. Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion is the generally preferred treatment for radiculopathy when there is a significant component of axial neck pain, when the disease is centrally located, or when there is any degree of segmental kyphosis. Posterior laminoforaminotomy is an acceptable choice for lateral soft disk herniations with predominant arm pain and for caudal lesions in large, short-necked individuals.

    • Keywords:
    • Bone Transplantation|Cervical Vertebrae|Diskectomy|Humans|Magnetic Resonance Imaging|Polyradiculoneuropathy|Postoperative Complications|Radiculopathy|Spinal Fusion

    • Subspecialty:
    • Spine

    • Pain Management

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