JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 9, No. 2


Kienbock's disease: diagnosis and treatment.

Kienbock's disease, or osteonecrosis of the lunate, can lead to chronic, debilitating wrist pain. Etiologic factors include vascular and skeletal variations combined with trauma or repetitive loading. In stage I Kienbock's disease, plain radiographs appear normal, and bone scintigraphy or magnetic resonance imaging is required for diagnosis. Initial treatment is nonoperative. In stage II, sclerosis of the lunate, compression fracture, and/or early collapse of the radial border of the lunate may appear. In stage IIIA, there is more severe lunate collapse. Because the remainder of the carpus is still uninvolved, treatment in stages II and IIIA involves attempts at revascularization of the lunate-either directly (with vascularized bone grafting) or indirectly (by unloading the lunate). Radial shortening in wrists with negative ulnar variance and capitate shortening or radial-wedge osteotomy in wrists with neutral or positive ulnar variance can be performed alone or with vascularized bone grafting. In stage IIIB, palmar rotation of the scaphoid and proximal migration of the capitate occur, and treatment addresses the carpal collapse. Surgical options include scaphotrapeziotrapezoid or scaphocapitate arthrodesis to correct scaphoid hyperflexion. In stage IV, degenerative changes are present at the midcarpal joint, the radiocarpal joint, or both. Treatment options include proximal-row carpectomy and wrist arthrodesis.

    • Keywords:
    • Carpal Bones|Humans|Magnetic Resonance Imaging|Osteochondritis

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Hand and Wrist

Medial elbow problems in the overhead-throwing athlete.

The elbow is subjected to enormous valgus stresses during the throwing motion, which places the overhead-throwing athlete at considerable risk for injury. Injuries involving the structures of the medial elbow occur in distinct patterns. Although acute injuries of the medial elbow can occur, the majority are overuse injuries as a result of the repetitive forces imparted to the elbow by throwing. Injury to the ulnar collateral ligament complex results in valgus instability. Valgus extension overload leads to diffuse osseous changes within the elbow joint and secondary posteromedial impingement. Overuse of the flexor-pronator musculature may result in medial epicondylitis and occasional muscle tears and ruptures. Ulnar neuropathy is a common finding that may be due to a variety of factors, including traction, friction, and compression of the ulnar nerve. Advances in nonoperative and operative treatment regimens specific to each injury pattern have resulted in the restoration of elbow function and the successful return of most injured overhead athletes to competitive activities. With further insight into the relevant anatomy, biomechanics, and pathophysiology involved in overhead activities and their associated injuries, significant contributions can continue to be made toward prevention and treatment of these injuries.

    • Keywords:
    • Athletic Injuries|Biomechanics|Cumulative Trauma Disorders|Elbow Joint|Humans|Joint Instability|Ligaments

    • Articular|Musculoskeletal Diseases|Ulnar Neuropathies

    • Subspecialty:
    • Sports Medicine

    • Shoulder and Elbow

    • Hand and Wrist

Neurologic complications after lumbar spine surgery.

With the increasing complexity and number of lumbar spine operations being performed, the potential number of patients who will sustain perioperative complications, including those that involve neural structures, has also increased. Neurologic complications after lumbar spine surgery can be categorized by the perioperative time period during which they occur and by their mechanism of injury. Although the overall incidence of neurologic complications after lumbar surgery is low, the severity of these injuries mandates careful preoperative planning, awareness of risk, and meticulous attention to perioperative details.

    • Keywords:
    • Animals|Humans|Lumbar Vertebrae|Magnetic Resonance Imaging|Nervous System Diseases|Orthopedic Procedures|Spinal Diseases

    • Subspecialty:
    • Spine

Protrusio acetabuli: diagnosis and treatment.

Idiopathic protrusio acetabuli is an uncommon disease process with both primary idiopathic and secondary forms. It is important to consider all etiologic possibilities before evaluating treatment options. Diagnosis is made on the basis of an anteroposterior radiograph of the pelvis that demonstrates a center-edge angle greater than 40 degrees and medialization of the medial wall of the acetabulum past the ilioischial line. For the skeletally immature patient, triradiate fusion (occasionally combined with intertrochanteric osteotomy) provides good results. For the young adult, valgus intertrochanteric proximal femoral osteotomy is recommended. In the older adult, this procedure may provide an acceptable result if there is minimal arthritis. For patients with more advanced arthritis, total hip arthroplasty with lateralization of the cup to a normal position provides a predictable long-term solution.

    • Keywords:
    • Acetabulum|Femur|Hip Joint|Humans|Joint Diseases|Osteotomy

    • Subspecialty:
    • Pediatric Orthopaedics

Talus fractures: evaluation and treatment.

Fractures of the talus are uncommon. The relative infrequency of these injuries in part accounts for the lack of useful and objective data to guide treatment. The integrity of the talus is critical to normal function of the ankle, subtalar, and transverse tarsal joints. Injuries to the head, neck, or body of the talus can interfere with normal coupled motion of these joints and result in permanent pain, loss of motion, and deformity. Outcomes vary widely and are related to the degree of initial fracture displacement. Nondisplaced fractures have a favorable outcome in most cases. Failure to recognize fracture displacement (even when minimal) can lead to undertreatment and poor outcomes. The accuracy of closed reduction of displaced talar neck fractures can be very difficult to assess. Operative treatment should, therefore, be considered for all displaced fractures. Osteonecrosis and malunion are common complications, and prompt and accurate reduction minimizes their incidence and severity. The use of titanium screws for fixation permits magnetic resonance imaging, which may allow earlier assessment of osteonecrosis; however, further investigation is necessary to determine the clinical utility of this information. Unrecognized medial talar neck comminution can lead to varus malunion and a supination deformity with decreased range of motion of the subtalar joint. Combined anteromedial and anterolateral exposure of talar neck fractures can help ensure anatomic reduction. Posttraumatic hindfoot arthrosis has been reported to occur in more than 90% of patients with displaced talus fractures. Salvage can be difficult and often necessitates extended arthrodesis procedures.

    • Keywords:
    • Ankle Injuries|Fractures

    • Closed|Humans|Necrosis|Skin|Talus

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Foot and Ankle

The limping child: evaluation and diagnosis.

A limp is a common reason for a child to present to the orthopaedist. Because of the long list of potential diagnoses, some of which demand urgent treatment, an organized approach to evaluation is required. With an understanding of normal and abnormal gait, a directed history and physical examination, and the development of a differential diagnosis based on the type of limp, the patient's age, and the anatomic site that is most likely affected, the orthopaedist can take a selective approach to diagnostic testing. Laboratory tests are indicated when infection, inflammatory arthritis, or a malignant condition is in the differential diagnosis. The C-reactive protein assay is the most sensitive early test for musculoskeletal infections; an abnormal value rapidly returns to normal with effective treatment. Imaging should begin with plain radiography. Ultrasonography is particularly valuable in assessing the irritable hip and guiding aspiration, if necessary.

    • Keywords:
    • Arthritis|Bone Diseases|Bone Diseases

    • Infectious|C-Reactive Protein|Diagnosis

    • Differential|Gait|Hip Joint|Humans|Joint Diseases|Knee Joint|Magnetic Resonance Imaging|Physical Examination|Tomography

    • X-Ray Computed

    • Subspecialty:
    • Pediatric Orthopaedics

Use of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in the management of osteoarthritis.

The goals of osteoarthritis therapy are to decrease pain and to maintain or improve joint function. The pharmacologic treatment of this condition has included the use of aspirin, acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. More recently, numerous studies have investigated the potential role of chondroprotective agents in repairing articular cartilage and decelerating the degenerative process. The reports of limited clinical experience with two of these agents, glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, as well as the accompanying publicity in the popular media, have generated controversy. Advocates of these alternative modalities cite reports of progressive and gradual decline of joint pain and tenderness, improved mobility, sustained improvement after drug withdrawal, and a lack of significant toxicity associated with short-term use of these agents. Critics point out that in the great majority of the relevant clinical trials, sample sizes were small and follow-up was short-term.

    • Keywords:
    • Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    • Non-Steroidal|Cartilage

    • Articular|Chondroitin Sulfates|Clinical Trials as Topic|Glucosamine|Humans|Ibuprofen|Osteoarthritis|Treatment Outcome

    • Subspecialty:
    • Adult Reconstruction

    • Pain Management

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