JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 9, No. 3


Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children.

Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis in children is a relatively uncommon but potentially serious disease. Improvements in radiologic imaging, most notably magnetic resonance imaging, and a heightened awareness of this condition have led to earlier detection and resultant marked decreases in morbidity and mortality. Staphylococcus aureus, which has the ability to bind to cartilage, produce a protective glycocalyx, and stimulate the release of endotoxins, accounts for 90% of infections in all age groups. Infections with Haemophilus influenzae have become rare in immunized children. A careful history and a thorough physical examination remain important. Positive cultures are obtained in only 50% to 80% of cases; the yield is improved by the use of blood cultures and evolving molecular techniques. Improvements in antibiotic treatment have lessened the role of surgery in managing these infections. Sequential intravenous and high-dose oral antibiotic therapy is now an accepted modality. Evaluation of response to treatment by monitoring C-reactive protein levels has decreased the average duration of therapy to 3 to 4 weeks with few relapses. The emergence of antibiotic resistance, particularly resistance to methicillin and vancomycin by S aureus organisms, is of increasing concern. Long-term sequelae and morbidity are primarily due to delays in diagnosis and inadequate treatment.

    • Keywords:
    • Algorithms|C-Reactive Protein|Child|Humans|Magnetic Resonance Imaging|Osteomyelitis

    • Subspecialty:
    • Pediatric Orthopaedics

Bone regeneration: new findings and potential clinical applications.

Bone is a biologically privileged tissue in that it has the capacity to undergo regeneration as part of a repair process. Fracture healing is the most common and recognizable form of bone regeneration, but several other examples of bone regeneration have been observed in humans, suggesting that the ability to regulate bone regeneration as a therapeutic tool should be possible. Historically, efforts at limb lengthening have led to procedures for regenerating bone, such as the method of Ilizarov. This procedure, known as distraction osteogenesis, has applications in a variety of skeletal conditions, including the restoration of large skeletal defects, the transport of bone in cases of severe trauma with bone loss, and the correction of skeletal deformities. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is an example of how an abnormal metabolic condition can be viewed as evidence for the capacity of humans to regenerate large amounts of bone if the cellular and molecular signaling events are altered. Elucidation of the cellular and molecular basis for bone regeneration in humans - particularly the role of the human genome in relation to the expression of various growth factors and cytokines, such as the bone morphogenetic proteins - offers great potential for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions. Development of specific bone morphogenetic proteins as therapeutic substances to induce bone regeneration in patients is well under way. As methods for enhancing fracture healing, distraction osteogenesis, and other procedures are refined, the development of protein- and gene-based therapies for regulating bone formation should lead to a new era of orthopaedic practice.

    • Keywords:
    • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins|Bone Regeneration|Fracture Healing|Gene Therapy|Humans|Osteogenesis

    • Distraction

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • General Orthopaedics

    • Basic Science

Bone-graft harvesting from iliac and fibular donor sites: techniques and complications.

The ilium and the fibula are the most common sites for bone-graft harvesting. The different methods for harvesting iliac bone graft include curettage, trapdoor or splitting techniques for cancellous bone, and the subcrestal-window technique for bicortical graft. A tricortical graft from the anterior ilium should be taken at least 3 cm posterior to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS). Iliac donor-site complications include pain, neurovascular injury, avulsion fractures of the ASIS, hematoma, infection, herniation of abdominal contents, gait disturbance, cosmetic deformity, violation of the sacroiliac joint, and ureteral injury. The neurovascular structures at risk for injury during iliac bone-graft harvesting include the lateral femoral cutaneous, iliohypogastric, and ilioinguinal nerves anteriorly and the superior cluneal nerves and superior gluteal neurovascular bundle posteriorly. Violation of the sacroiliac joint can be avoided by limiting the harvested area to 4 cm from the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and by not penetrating the inner cortex. The caudal limit for bone harvesting should be the inferior margin of the roughened area anterior to the PSIS on the outer table to keep from injuring the superior gluteal artery. Potential complications of fibular graft harvesting include neurovascular injury, compartment syndrome, extensor hallucis longus weakness, and ankle instability. The neurovascular structures at risk for injury during fibular bone-graft harvesting include the peroneal nerves and their muscular branches in the proximal third of the fibular shaft and the peroneal vessels in the middle third.

    • Keywords:
    • Bone Transplantation|Fibula|Humans|Ilium|Sacroiliac Joint|Tissue and Organ Harvesting

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

Endoscopic pelvic osteotomy for the treatment of hip dysplasia.

Adolescent and adult hip dysplasia can be surgically treated by rotating the acetabulum into a better weight-supporting position; however, open pelvic osteotomies are among the most invasive of all pediatric orthopaedic procedures. Endoscopic pelvic osteotomy offers the theoretical advantages of magnified visualization of the bone cuts, minimized surgical dissection, and rapid postoperative recovery. The technique of endoscopically assisted triple innominate osteotomy requires the combination of endoscopic skills and facility with more standard surgical approaches.

    • Keywords:
    • Endoscopy|Hip Dislocation|Humans|Osteotomy

    • Subspecialty:
    • Pediatric Orthopaedics

Magnetic resonance imaging of the foot and ankle.

Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the foot and ankle is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of a wide range of foot and ankle abnormalities, as well as in planning for their surgical treatment. For an optimal MR study of the foot and ankle, it is necessary to obtain high-resolution, small-field-of-view images using a variety of pulse sequences. The most common indication for MR imaging of the foot and ankle is for the evaluation of tendon and bone abnormalities, such as osteomyelitis, occult fractures, and partial and complete tears of the Achilles, tibialis posterior, and peroneal tendons. Magnetic resonance imaging has also been shown to be helpful in the diagnosis of several soft-tissue abnormalities that are unique to the foot and ankle, such as plantar fasciitis, plantar fibromatosis, interdigital neuromas, and tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    • Keywords:
    • Achilles Tendon|Ankle|Bone Diseases|Fasciitis|Foot|Humans|Ligaments

    • Articular|Magnetic Resonance Imaging|Tendons

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Foot and Ankle

Nonarticular proximal tibia fractures: treatment options and decision making.

Nonarticular proximal-third fractures account for 5% to 11% of tibial shaft injuries and occur as a result of a variety of mechanisms. Treatment is more challenging than for more distal fractures, and the rates of compartment syndrome and arterial injury are higher, especially for displaced fractures. Closed management often leads to varus malunion, especially when the fibula is intact. Closed treatment should therefore be reserved for nondisplaced or minimally displaced fractures with little soft-tissue injury. Plating of the proximal tibia has become a less popular alternative because of the high incidence of infection and fixation failure. However, judicious use of lateral plates as an adjunct to medial external fixation in comminuted fractures can be effective. External fixation remains the most versatile method. It is indicated for fractures with short proximal fragments and in cases of extensive soft-tissue injury that would preclude use of other surgical techniques. Temporary joint-spanning external fixation has a role in the initial management of certain fracture patterns, particularly when accompanied by severe soft-tissue injury. Although intramedullary nailing can lead to valgus malunion in a sizable percentage of patients with this injury, it can be useful for stabilizing fractures with proximal fragments longer than 5 to 6 cm. Placing the entry portal more proximal and lateral, locking in extension, and using specific techniques, such as blocking screws, can improve alignment after nailing. Use of an algorithm that takes into account the severity of soft-tissue injury, the length of the fracture fragment, and the degree of fracture stability allows effective decision making among current treatment techniques.

    • Keywords:
    • Algorithms|Bone Plates|Casts

    • Surgical|Decision Making|External Fixators|Fracture Fixation

    • Intramedullary|Humans|Tibial Fractures

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

Wrist arthroscopy: principles and clinical applications.

With the development of better and smaller equipment, arthroscopy of the wrist offers the same benefits achievable with arthroscopy of the knee, shoulder, or elbow - not only diagnostic information but also a therapeutic option. Standardized techniques of performing wrist arthroscopy have been developed to evaluate the treat various wrist disorders, such as lesions of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, intra-articular distal radius fractures, and scaphoid fractures. Arthroscopy is now performed in the treatment of dorsal-wrist ganglion cysts and interosseous ligament disruptions, as well as for bone incisions, such as radial styloidectomy, distal ulnar excision (wafer procedure), and proximal-row carpectomy. Compared with other techniques, arthroscopic procedures, such as repair of the triangular fibrocartilage complex, demonstrate better results and improved localization of the injury with a low complication rate. In addition, arthroscopic procedures involve lesssurgical dissection, less postoperative pain, a shorter recovery time, and an earlier return to work for the patient.

    • Keywords:
    • Arthroscopy|Debridement|Fractures

    • Bone|Humans|Joint Diseases|Joint Instability|Ligaments

    • Articular|Rupture|Synovial Cyst|Wrist Joint

    • Subspecialty:
    • Hand and Wrist

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