Smoking Threatens Orthopaedic Outcomes

Negative effects should prompt orthopaedists to address the issue with patients

S. Terry Canale, MD; Frank B. Kelly, MD; and Kaye Daugherty

Although the prevalence of smoking has decreased dramatically in the United States during the past 50 years, this decline has not translated into a decline in the health problems associated with smoking. The deleterious effects of smoking on cardiovascular and pulmonary function are well known, as are the carcinogenic properties, and physicians in these disciplines have been at the forefront of smoking cessation efforts for their patients.

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