Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

Abstract

Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a relatively rare tumor characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells. Although usually regarded as benign, GCT of bone is locally aggressive and prone to local recurrence if inadequately treated. Metastasis to the lung and malignant transformation can also occur. GCT of bone has a distinctive histologic and radiographic appearance, and its diagnosis is usually not difficult; however, because histologic interpretation is not always reliable, diagnosis should be the end result of the integration of clinical, radiographic, and histologic information. Recommended treatment options for GCT of bone include thorough curettage and high-speed burring of the lesion followed by an adjuvant therapy, such as phenol, liquid nitrogen, or argon-beam coagulation. The recurrence rate of GCT of bone ranges from 3% to 25%, depending on which treatment option is employed; therefore, long-term follow-up of patients is necessary.

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