Malignant Bone Tumors in Children

Abstract

Osteosarcoma is the most commonly isolated malignant bone tumor in children, followed by Ewing's sarcoma and lymphoma. Classic osteosarcoma is the most common subtype of osteosarcoma. Lesions usually occur in the metaphyses of long bones, most frequently in the distal femur, proximal tibia, proximal humerus, and proximal femur, in that order. Treatment for osteosarcoma includes preoperative chemotherapy, wide surgical resection, and postoperative chemotherapy. Lymphoma of bone is a rare malignant tumor that originates from lymphoblastic tissue. Primary lymphomas are most common in the metaphyses of the major long and flat bones. Chemotherapy is the primary treatment modality. Radiation therapy is sometimes used, particularly when there is inadequate response to chemotherapy. Ewing's sarcoma is a highly malignant neoplasm that affects the long bones of the skeleton (femur, tibia, and humerus), as well as the spine, pelvis, and ribs. Standard treatment for Ewing's sarcoma is chemotherapy. Following a satisfactory response to chemotherapy, patients are evaluated to determine whether surgery, radiation therapy, or both are the best modalities to control the disease.

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