Hospital Procedures & Responses to COVID-19

As of September 1, 2020, this article/literature list is no longer being actively updated.  If noteworthy studies are released in the future, those may be posted on a case-by-case basis. If you have any questions please contact Kaitlyn Sevarino at

Under no circumstances should this list be viewed as AAOS concurring with or endorsing of the study findings, nor has AAOS conducted a systematic review of all surgical literature relevant to COVID-19. The study authors, designs, and data have not been assessed for risk of bias, quality, or accuracy, respectively. Healthcare providers should rely on their own clinical judgment in review and use of these materials.

  1. Kumar A, Qureshi OA, Arora R, Kumar S, Jameel J, Khan R. Comparison of three low-cost techniques to control fogging of sealed eyewear in a simulated operating room environment: A preliminary analysis. J Clin Orthop Trauma.
  2. Rajakulasingam R, Da Silva EJ, Azzopardi C, Fernandez T, Botchu R, Hargunani R. Standard operating procedure of image-guided intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic: a combined tertiary musculoskeletal oncology centre experience. Clin Radiol.
  3. Guiroy A, Gagliardi M, Coombes N, et al. COVID-19 Impact Among Spine Surgeons in Latin America. Global Spine Journal. 2020.
  4. Ohliger E, Umpierrez E, Buehler L, et al. Mental health of orthopaedic trauma patients during the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. Int Orthop. 2020:1-5.
  5. Viswanathan R, Myers MF, Fanous AH. Support groups and individual mental health care via video conferencing for frontline clinicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. 2020.
  6. Dittman JM, Tse W, Amendola MF. Optimizing Peripandemic Care for Veteran Major Non-Traumatic Lower Extremity Amputees: A Proposal Informed by a National Retrospective Descriptive Analysis of COVID-19 Risk Factor Prevalence. Mil Med.
  7. Kisely S, Warren N, McMahon L, et al. Occurrence, prevention, and management of the psychological effects of emerging virus outbreaks on healthcare workers: rapid review and meta-analysis Case Report: Diagnosis of Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) versus Tropical Diseases in Pakistan. 2020;369:m1642-m1642.
  8. Lombardi A, Consonni D, Carugno M, et al. Characteristics of 1,573 healthcare workers who underwent nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 in Milano, Lombardy, Italy. Clin Microbiol Infect.
  9. Schmidt SB, Grüter L, Boltzmann M, Rollnik JD. Prevalence of serum IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among clinic staff. PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0235417.
  10. Guideance Summary: Use of Corticosteroids for Musculoskeletal Pain during the COVID-19 Pandemic
  11. Widmer, A. F., Richner, G. Proposal for a EN 149 acceptable reprocessing method for FFP2 respirators in times of severe shortage. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2020; 1: 88
  12. Díaz-Guio, D. A., Ricardo-Zapata, A., Ospina-Velez, J., Gómez-Candamil, G., Mora-Martinez, S., Rodriguez-Morales, A. J. Cognitive load and performance of health care professionals in donning and doffing PPE before and after a simulation-based educational intervention and its implications during the COVID-19 pandemic for biosafety. Infez Med 2020; 0: 111-117
  13. Tan, W., Ye, Y., Yang, Y., Chen, Z., Yang, X., Zhu, C., Chen, D., Tan, J., Zhen, C. Whole-Process Emergency Training of Personal Protective Equipment Helps Healthcare Workers Against COVID-19: Design and Effect. J Occup Environ Med 2020; 6: 420-423
  14. Aminizadeh, M., Farrokhi, M., Ebadi, A., Masoumi, G. R., Kolivand, P., Khankeh, H. R. Hospital management preparedness tools in biological events: A scoping review. J Educ Health Promot 2019; 0: 234
  15. Blake, H., Bermingham, F., Johnson, G., Tabner, A. Mitigating the Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on Healthcare Workers: A Digital Learning Package. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 9:
  16. Cai, W., Lian, B., Song, X., Hou, T., Deng, G., Li, H. A cross-sectional study on mental health among health care workers during the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019. Asian J Psychiatr 2020; 0: 102111
  17. De Boer, J. C., Lok, A., van't Verlaat, E., Duivenvoorden, H. J., Bakker, A. B., Smit, B. J. Work-related critical incidents in hospital-based health care providers and the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression: A meta-analysis. Social Science and Medicine 2011; 2: 316-326
  18. Fregene, T. E., Nadarajah, P., Buckley, J. F., Bigham, S., Nangalia, V. Use of in situ simulation to evaluate the operational readiness of a high-consequence infectious disease intensive care unit. Anaesthesia 2020; 0:
  19. Li, S., Wang, Y., Xue, J., Zhao, N., Zhu, T. The Impact of COVID-19 Epidemic Declaration on Psychological Consequences: A Study on Active Weibo Users. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 6:
  20. Modi, P. D., Nair, G., Uppe, A., Modi, J., Tuppekar, B., Gharpure, A. S., Langade, D. COVID-19 Awareness Among Healthcare Students and Professionals in Mumbai Metropolitan Region: A Questionnaire-Based Survey. Cureus 2020; 4: e7514
  21. Prachand, V. N., Milner, R., Angelos, P., Posner, M. C., Fung, J. J., Agrawal, N., Jeevanandam, V., Matthews, J. B. Medically-Necessary, Time-Sensitive Procedures: A Scoring System to Ethically and Efficiently Manage Resource Scarcity and Provider Risk During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Am Coll Surg 2020; 0:
  22. Sahu, D., Agrawal, T., Rathod, V., Bagaria, V. Impact of COVID 19 lockdown on orthopaedic surgeons in India: A survey. J Clin Orthop Trauma 2020; 0:
  23. Stibich, M., Stachowiak, J. The microbiological impact of pulsed xenon ultraviolet disinfection on resistant bacteria, bacterial spore and fungi and viruses. Southern African Journal of Infectious Diseases 2016; 1: 12-15
  24. Wendelboe, A. M., Miller, A., Drevets, D., Salinas, L., Miller, E. J., Jackson, D., Chou, A., Raines, J. Tabletop exercise to prepare institutions of higher education for an outbreak of COVID-19. J Emerg Manag 2020; 2: 183-184
  25. Xu, J., Xu, Q. H., Wang, C. M., Wang, J. Psychological status of surgical staff during the COVID-19 outbreak. Psychiatry Res 2020; 0: 112955
  26. Yin, Q., Sun, Z., Liu, T., Ni, X., Deng, X., Jia, Y., Shang, Z., Zhou, Y., Liu, W. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms of Health Care Workers during the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Clin Psychol Psychother 2020; 0:
  27. Zamberg, I., Manzano, S., Posfay-Barbe, K., Windisch, O., Agoritsas, T., Schiffer, E. Utilization of a mobile platform for the dissemination of validated institutional measurements during CoVid-19 Outbreak: A practical example in the Children's Hospital. JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020; 0:

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiraory Syndrome (MERS) Search Results

  1. Stukel TA, Schull MJ, Guttmann A,, et. al, Health impact of hospital restrictions on seriously ill hospitalized patients: lessons from the Toronto SARS outbreak. Med Care. 2008;46(9):991-7
  2. Tien, HC, Chughtai, T, Jogeklar ,A, Cooper, AB, Brenneman F., Elective and emergency surgery in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Can J Surg. 2005;48(1); 71-4.
  3. Tan, Y.M, Chow, P.K, Tan, B.H., Management of inpatients exposed to an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). J Hosp Infect. 2004;58(3):210-5.
  4. Wong KC, Leung KS, Hui M., Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in a geriatric patient with a hip fracture. A case report. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85(7):1339-42.
  5. Tran, K., Cimon, K., Severn, M., Pessoa-Silva, C. L., Conly, J. Aerosol generating procedures and risk of transmission of acute respiratory infections to healthcare workers: a systematic review. PLoS One 2012; 4: e35797
  6. Ki, H. K., Han, S. K., Son, J. S., Park, S. O. Risk of transmission via medical employees and importance of routine infection-prevention policy in a nosocomial outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): a descriptive analysis from a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. BMC pulmonary medicine 2019; 1: 190