JAAOS, Volume 17, No. 1

Traumatic hip dislocations in children and adolescents: pitfalls and complications.

Traumatic hip dislocation is an uncommon injury in children. Lack of familiarity with management of the treating physician may lead to complications. Hip dislocation in young children can occur with minor trauma; in adolescents, greater force is required to produce a traumatic complete hip dislocation. Transient hip dislocation with spontaneous but incomplete reduction is a diagnostic pitfall that can occur in adolescents. Any asymmetric widening of the hip joint warrants additional investigation. Most dislocations in children can be reduced with gentle manipulation. Urgent reduction of the hip within 6 hours of injury reduces the risk of osteonecrosis. However, closed reduction in adolescents should be performed with caution because of the risk of displacement of the femoral head during manipulation. Open reduction is indicated when closed reduction fails or when there is interposition of bone or soft tissue following attempted closed reduction. Late complications include osteonecrosis, coxa magna, and osteoarthritis.

    • Keywords:
    • Adolescent|Buttocks|Child|Diagnostic Imaging|Early Diagnosis|Hip Dislocation|Humans|Osteoarthritis

    • Hip|Osteonecrosis|Recurrence|Sciatic Nerve|Time Factors

    • Subspecialty:
    • Trauma

    • Pediatric Orthopaedics

Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine.

Historically, magnetic resonance imaging has offered poor specificity in the diagnosis of back pain. Researchers currently are engaged in developing new techniques, and clinicians are successfully utilizing existing technologies (ie, diffusion-weighted imaging) that previously were not used to evaluate the spine. Magnetic resonance imaging may be used in several spinal applications: intervertebral disk and facet joint degeneration, spinal canal stenosis, suspected diskitis or osteomyelitis, suspected spinal column neoplasia, vascular disorders, trauma, and demyelinating disease.

    • Keywords:
    • Contrast Media|Humans|Magnetic Resonance Imaging|Spinal Diseases

    • Subspecialty:
    • Spine

Surgical treatment for chronic disease and disorders of the achilles tendon.

Chronic Achilles tendon disorders range from overuse syndromes to frank ruptures. Numerous forms of treatment have been used, depending on the nature of the disorder or injury. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are commonly used for evaluation. The spectrum of disease comprises paratenonitis, tendinosis, paratenonitis with tendinosis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, insertional tendinosis, and chronic rupture. However, there is no clear consensus on what defines a chronic Achilles disorder. Nonsurgical therapy is the mainstay of treatment for most patients with overuse syndromes. Surgical techniques for overuse syndromes or chronic rupture include débridement, local tissue transfer, augmentation, and synthetic grafts. Local tissue transfer most commonly employs either the flexor hallucis longus or flexor digitorum longus tendon to treat a chronic rupture. Reports on long-term outcomes are needed before useful generalizations can be made regarding treatment.

    • Keywords:
    • Achilles Tendon|Bursitis|Chronic Disease|Cumulative Trauma Disorders|Diagnostic Imaging|Humans|Rupture|Tendon Injuries|Tendon Transfer

    • Subspecialty:
    • Foot and Ankle

Knee injury outcomes measures.

Outcomes measures have long been used in the assessment of knee injuries and management protocols. In the past decade, there has been a shift from clinician-based outcomes tools to the development and validation of patient-reported outcomes measures. General health as well as disease- and medical condition-specific outcomes measures have been so modified. The Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form is the most commonly used general health measure in orthopaedics. Joint-specific measures include the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Form. The Lysho