JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 26, No. 11


Association of Perioperative Glycemic Control With Deep Postoperative Infection After Shoulder Arthroplasty in Patients With Diabetes

Background: Although diabetes mellitus (DM) has been established as a risk factor for infection after lower extremity arthroplasty, no association has been reported with shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: We queried a national database for patients with DM who underwent primary shoulder arthroplasty. We identified perioperative hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and assessed the incidence of wound complications within 6 months and deep infection that required surgical intervention within 1 year for each HbA1c level. We performed a receiver operating characteristic analysis to determine a threshold value of HbA1c.

Results: Patients with DM had markedly higher rates of wound complications (1.4% versus 0.9%; odds ratio, 1.22; P = 0.028) and deep infection (0.7% versus 0.4%; odds ratio, 1.47; P = 0.001). The rates of wound complications (P = 0.0008) and deep postoperative infection (P = 0.002) increased markedly as the perioperative HbA1c level increased. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an inflection point at an HbA1c level of 8.0 mg/dL (P = 0.017; sensitivity, 50%; specificity, 75%).

Conclusions: The risk of wound complications and deep postoperative infection in patients with DM increases as the perioperative HbA1c level increases. An HbA1c level >8.0 mg/dL could serve as a threshold for a markedly increased risk of infection.

Level of Evidence: Therapeutic level III, case-control study, treatment study

      • Subspecialty:
      • Shoulder and Elbow,

      • Shoulder,

    Functional Outcomes and Complications After Oncologic Reconstruction of the Proximal Humerus

    Background: No consensus exists on the best method of articular reconstruction in patients who require proximal humerus resection for the management of primary bone sarcomas, soft-tissue sarcomas extending into the bone, benign and locally aggressive primary bone tumors, and metastatic disease.

    Methods: We identified patients from two institutions who underwent wide resection of the proximal humerus along with oncologic reconstruction using osteoarticular allografts (OAs), endoprostheses, or allograft-prosthesis composites. We prospectively collected functional outcomes and retrospectively assessed complications and implant survival.

    Results: A total of 150 patients were included in this study. The average Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire score was 26 for 25 patients, of which we gathered their functional data, with no differences in physical function among the three constructional methods according to the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, upper extremity Toronto Extremity Salvage Score, upper extremity Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System scores. Overall, the survival rate of the prosthesis was >50%. A trend was noted for a higher risk of failure in the OA group secondary to the allograft fracture.

    Discussion: All three articular oncologic shoulder reconstructions were comparable in terms of function. This large series confirms a higher fracture rate in OAs, which explains the observed higher revision rate and apparent lower survival rate in this subgroup.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Shoulder and Elbow,

        • Shoulder,

      Heterotopic Ossification of the Inferior Pubic Ramus

      The hip is a common location for heterotopic ossification after surgical trauma, blunt trauma, or muscle injury. However, the region around the pubic rami is an unusual location for heterotopic bone formation. Here, we present a case of a young, active man in the Armed Forces Reserve with a large heterotopic bone involving the left inferior pubic ramus who underwent surgical excision through an unusual approach via the perineum. The patient had notable pain relief postoperatively and returned to his active duties 1 month after surgery without discomfort or functional limitation.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Hip,

          • Adult Reconstruction,

        Management of Articular Cartilage Defects in the Glenohumeral Joint

        Articular cartilage defects are not often encountered in the glenohumeral joint. These lesions are typically found in patients with shoulder trauma, recurrent instability, or previous surgical treatment. Diagnosis can be difficult; these defects are often found incidentally during arthroscopic or open surgical management of other pathology. Initial management of isolated glenohumeral chondral defects is nonsurgical and includes physical therapy and/or corticosteroid injections. If nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful, patients may undergo surgery. Because these lesions occur infrequently, few studies have documented surgical techniques and outcomes. Surgical strategies include arthroscopic débridement, microfracture surgery, osteochondral autograft or allograft transplantation, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and particulated juvenile allograft cartilage implantation.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Shoulder and Elbow,

            • Shoulder,

          Primary and Secondary Total Knee Arthroplasty for Tibial Plateau Fractures

          The surgical management of tibial plateau fractures can be technically demanding. In younger patients, the mainstay is fixation with cartilage preservation. In older patients with osteoporotic bone, this method has higher rates of fixation failure; in addition, it requires prolonged bed rest or protected weight bearing, which are major challenges in this group. In contrast, total knee arthroplasty performed acutely for primary treatment of tibial plateau fractures has potential advantages for elderly patients, such as immediate stability, early mobilization, and positive functional outcomes with decreased rates of reoperation. Additionally, arthroplasty can be technically challenging in younger patients with previous tibial plateau fractures in whom debilitating posttraumatic arthritis develops. In these patients, old wounds, retained metalwork, bony deficiency, and instability can lead to poorer outcomes and higher complication rates than in routine knee arthroplasty. In both cases, we recommend surgery be performed by experienced arthroplasty surgeons with ample access to a range of implants with varying constraints and the option of stems and augments.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Knee,

              • Adult Reconstruction,

            Revision Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction

            Ulnar collateral ligament injuries continue to occur despite efforts to educate pitchers, coaches, and families at the amateur and professional levels about pitch counts, mechanics, and injury prevention. Although the data on the incidence of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions are inconclusive, an increase in these reconstructions may mean a corresponding increase in the number of reconstruction failures and revision reconstruction surgeries. Less is known about the outcomes of revision ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction; not unexpectedly, early results are not as promising as those observed with primary reconstruction. In response, interest in revision techniques, rehabilitation, and outcomes of revision ulnar collateral ligament reconstruction surgeries has grown.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Elbow,

                • Shoulder and Elbow,

              Spinopelvic Fixation

              Fixation at the lumbosacral junction continues to be a challenge for spine surgeons despite advances in spinal instrumentation techniques. The poor bone quality of the sacrum, the complex regional anatomy, and the tremendous biomechanical forces at the lumbosacral junction contribute to the high rates of instrumentation-related complications. Although many spinopelvic fixation techniques have been reported, only a few are still widely used because of the high complication rates associated with previous techniques. Spinopelvic fixation has numerous indications. Long-segment lumbar and thoracolumbar fusions to the sacrum are the most common scenarios in which instrumentation is extended to the pelvis. Surgeons performing complex spinal reconstruction should be familiar with the available techniques, including their potential risks and complications.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Hip,

                  • Spine,

                  • Spine,

                  • Adult Reconstruction,

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