JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 26, No. 16


Management of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Adults Aged >40 Years

Management of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in adults aged >40 years has received increased attention in the literature because of an increase in the functional demands of aging athletes. Multiple structural and biomechanical age-dependent changes exist in the ACL, for example, fewer mesenchymal stem cells, decreased healing potential, decreased structural organization, decreased stiffness, and a decreased load to failure with age. As in younger patients, ACL insufficiency can predispose an older patient to the same risks of recurrent instability, meniscal and chondral injury, and osteoarthritis. The role of nonsurgical versus surgical management in these patients remains controversial. Lower-demand patients may be able to cope with ACL deficiency. Higher-demand patients may have functional instability, and the limited studies available suggest good functional outcomes with surgical reconstruction of the ACL in this population.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Knee,

      • Adult Reconstruction,

    Thumb Basal Joint Arthritis

    The thumb basal joint is the second most common site of osteoarthritis in the hand, and osteoarthritis of this joint can contribute to painful movement and debilitating function. To achieve a high degree of prehensile and manipulative function, this highly mobile joint is constrained by both the saddle morphology of the trapezium and a stout complement of ligamentous constraints. The disease proceeds progressively with several wear patterns. Substantial new biomechanical and longitudinal clinical studies have changed some of the prevailing opinions on the process of serial degenerative changes. Diagnosis is made with a thorough clinical examination and radiographic staging, as described by Eaton and Littler. Thumb basal joint arthritis can be initially managed with medications, orthoses, and steroid injections; however, it frequently progresses despite these interventions. Surgical management commonly consists of trapeziectomy with or without interposition or suspension, arthroplasty with implant, volar ligament reconstruction, osteotomy, or arthrodesis; none of these techniques has been proved to be superior to the others.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Hand and Wrist,

      Management of Upper Extremities in Tetraplegia: Current Concepts

      Individuals with tetraplegia face many obstacles with activities of daily living. Although approximately 65% to 75% of individuals with tetraplegia would benefit from upper extremity surgery that could make many of their activities of daily living more spontaneous, only 14% of patients who are surgical candidates undergo tendon transfer procedures. A good surgical candidate has an injury at one of the cervical spine levels and an International Classification for Surgery of the Hand in Tetraplegia group of 1 or better, has functional goals, and is committed to the postoperative rehabilitation process. Surgery primarily consists of tendon transfers, tenodesis, and arthrodesis to restore elbow extension and hand pinch, grasp, and release. Nerve transfers and functional electrical stimulation are also options for treatment.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Hand and Wrist,

          • General Orthopaedics,

        3D-printed Patient-specific Guides for Hip Arthroplasty

        Surgeons and engineers constantly search for methods to improve the surgical positioning of implants used for joint arthroplasty. Rapid prototyping is being used to develop patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) and has already been successfully translated into large-scale clinical use for knee arthroplasty. PSI has been used in shoulder arthroplasty; however, it is not yet known whether PSI provides improved accuracy and outcomes compared with conventional methods in either shoulder arthroplasty or knee arthroplasty. In the hip, PSI has been limited to the positioning of custom-manufactured implants and a small number of surgeons testing the emerging solutions from different manufacturers. Early results indicate consistent accurate positioning of implants with the use of PSI in hip arthroplasty but with added costs and uncertain effect on clinical outcomes.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Hip,

            • Adult Reconstruction,

          Median Nerve Symptoms, Signs, and Electrodiagnostic Abnormalities Among Working Adults

          Introduction: Diagnostic screening tests for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) have not been rigorously assessed in large populations.

          Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analysis from a prospective cohort study. Participants' (n = 1,194) symptoms and disease prevalence were measured. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated.

          Results: When defining CTS as tingling/numbness in at least two median nerve–served digits and an abnormal median nerve conduction study, the prevalence was 8.9%. The sensitivity of paresthesias with nocturnal awakening was 77.4%. The sensitivity of the Phalen sign was 52.8% and that of the Hoffman-Tinel sign was only 37.7%.

          Discussion: The highest sensitivity (77.4%) for a case definition of CTS in this population of workers was for nocturnal tingling/numbness in a median nerve distribution, and the highest specificity (97.5%) was for continuous tingling/numbness. The Phalen sign has a sensitivity of 52.8% and NPV of 95%, suggesting that the NPV is of particular diagnostic value. Hoffman-Tinel signs seem primarily helpful for the NPV (93.7%).

          Level of Evidence: Level II diagnostic study

              • Subspecialty:
              • General Orthopaedics,

            Intra-articular Gentamicin-loaded PLA Microparticle Injection for the Treatment of Septic Arthritis in Rabbits

            Background: Because local delivery of drugs induces high concentrations, it could be helpful to apply these delivery systems to the treatment of septic arthritis by antibiotics. Thus, a gentamicin-loaded polymer was tested in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus septic arthritis.

            Methods: Thirty New Zealand rabbits were split into five groups: A: infection only; B: infection and systemic gentamicin treatment; C: infection and unloaded polymer and systemic gentamicin treatment; D: infection and gentamicin-loaded polymer only; and E: no infection and unloaded polymer. After inducing nonlethal septic arthritis in the knee joint by injecting 103 colony-forming units (CFUs) of a strain of methicillin-sensitive S aureus in groups A, B, C, and D, rabbits were housed for 15 days, and then the joint capsules were removed and the remaining bacteria were counted. Bacterial load was expressed in CFUs per gram of synovial tissue. In group E, capsules were removed, and a pathologic examination was done.

            Results: At day 15, the bacterial load was 6 × 108, 2 × 109, 1.8 × 107, and 7 × 103 CFU/g of tissue for groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. Compared with the mean of groups A, B, and C, the bacterial load of group D was 4.94 units of log10 CFU/g lower than that of these groups. The bacterial load of group D was statistically significantly lower than that of the other three groups. Noticeably, two animals of group D had a nil bacterial count. In group E animals, a minimal foreign body reaction was observed around the polymer.

            Discussion: Gentamicin-containing microparticles were more efficient in reducing bacterial load than systemic injections of gentamicin and thus have an interesting role to play in the treatment of human arthritis. However, inserting microparticles in joints is not easy, and hydrogels might be a good alternative approach.

                • Subspecialty:
                • General Orthopaedics,

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