JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 26, No. 17


Instability in Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

Recently, indications for reverse total shoulder arthroplasty have expanded to include glenohumeral arthritis, rotator cuff arthropathy, irreparable rotator cuff tears, complex proximal humerus fractures, sequelae of trauma, and failed shoulder prostheses. Dislocation is a common complication, with rates ranging from 1.5% to 31%. The literature pertaining to management of instability in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty is scanty. Assessment of the patient and biomechanical and surgical factors is critical in determining the best course of treatment. Future studies involving patient selection, prosthetic design, surgical technique, and biomechanics may help reduce the rate of instability.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Shoulder and Elbow

    Current Concepts Review: Evaluation and Management of Posterior Hip Pain

    Understanding the etiology of and evolving research on intra- and extra-articular hip complaints requires comprehensive diagnosis and management of the spectrum of posterior hip diseases. Interest in posterior hip disorders has increased in recent years as new studies and theories have emerged regarding the disease process. Although most of the differential diagnoses around the posterior hip have traditionally been considered uncommon, recent reports suggest that these complaints have instead been commonly overlooked. Failure to identify the cause of posterior hip pain in a timely manner can increase pain perception, deteriorate the patient's hope, and consequently affect quality of life. Posterior hip pain could be differentiated as intrapelvic and extrapelvic, and differential diagnosis is made based on a comprehensive history, physical examination, and imaging studies. Plain radiography, CT, MRI, 3T MRI, and imaging-guided injection tests are usually necessary for accurate diagnosis. Surgical intervention, whether endoscopic or open, is required for patients with long-standing symptoms for whom nonsurgical treatment has been unsuccessful and who have experienced temporary relief of their symptoms after injection. Orthopedic surgeons are uniquely trained in understanding the anatomy, biomechanics, clinical evaluation and treatment of all five layers of the hip.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Hip

        • Adult Reconstruction

      Management of Sacroiliac Joint Pain

      Sacroiliac joint (SIJ)-based pain can be difficult to diagnose definitively through physical examination and conventional radiography. A fluoroscopically guided injection into the SIJ can be both diagnostic and therapeutic. The initial phase of treatment involves nonsurgical modalities such as activity modification, use of a sacroiliac (SI) belt, NSAIDs, and physical therapy. Prolotherapy and radiofrequency ablation may offer a potential benefit as therapeutic modalities, although limited data support their use as a primary treatment modality. Surgical treatment is indicated for patients with a positive response to an SI injection with >75% relief, failure of nonsurgical treatment, and continued or recurrent SIJ pain. Percutaneous SI arthrodesis may be recommended as a first-line surgical treatment because of its improved safety profile compared with open arthrodesis; however, in the case of revision surgery, nonunion, and aberrant anatomy, open arthrodesis should be performed.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Hip

          • Adult Reconstruction

        Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis in the Young Patient

        Glenohumeral osteoarthritis in the young patient (aged <60 years) is a difficult condition, given both age and functional demands. Primary osteoarthritis is the most common etiology in this patient demographic, but secondary causes include osteonecrosis, previous trauma (eg, fracture-dislocation), previous infection (eg, septic arthritis), previous capsulorrhaphy, previous arthroscopic surgery (eg, chondrolysis), and glenoid dysplasia. Nonsurgical modalities, including activity modification, pharmacotherapy, physical therapy, and intra-articular injections, are the mainstay of management; however, in young patients who have exhausted nonsurgical management, surgical options include arthroscopic débridement, humeral head replacement with or without glenoid treatment (ie, biologic glenoid resurfacing, glenoid reaming), and total or reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. Unfortunately, failure rates after surgical management are considerably higher in young patients compared with those observed in older, more sedentary patients. Here, we focus on the etiology, evaluation, and management of young patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis, with a focus on clinical outcomes.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Shoulder and Elbow

            • Pediatric Orthopaedics

            • Shoulder

          Use of Intrawound Antibiotics in Orthopaedic Surgery

          Intrawound antibiotics have been used in orthopaedic surgery procedures to prevent the development of surgical site infections. Local delivery of antibiotic powder has demonstrated a notable reduction in surgical site infection in rabbit and rodent in vivo models, as well as in other surgical fields, including vascular, colorectal, cardiothoracic, and dermatologic surgery. Intrawound antibiotic powder has been used in many orthopaedic applications, including spine surgery, total joint arthroplasty, trauma, foot and ankle reconstruction, and elbow surgery. Although the theory behind the use of intrawound antibiotic powder is promising, it has potential adverse effects, including antibiotic resistance, circulatory collapse, and decreased bone healing. In addition, most studies in the orthopaedic literature on the use of intrawound antibiotic powder are retrospective in nature.

              • Subspecialty:
              • General Orthopaedics

            Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Swab Results Did Not Change Treatment or Outcome in Pediatric Spinal Fusion Patients

            Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate whether preoperative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) swab results were predictive of surgical site infections (SSIs) in pediatric patients who have undergone spinal fusion.

            Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent posterior spinal fusion between 2004 and 2014 to determine preoperative MRSA colonization status and SSI rates and organisms. Before October 1, 2012, we administered vancomycin to the patients for infection prophylaxis; beginning October 1, 2012, patients received ceftazidime and Ancef (cefazolin for injection; GlaxoSmithKline). We added powdered vancomycin to all bone grafts.

            Results: A total of 1,200 patients met inclusion criteria. Of the patients, 2.3% (n = 28 of 1,200) were positive for MRSA, and an SSI developed in 3.1% (n = 37 of 1,200). No significant difference in infection rates was found between patients whose MRSA swab was positive and negative (positive swab = 1 SSI, negative swab = 36 SSIs; P = 0.88). Three SSIs were caused by MRSA.

            Conclusion: The results of a preoperative MRSA nasal swab had no correlation with SSI rates.

            Level of Evidence: Level III

                • Subspecialty:
                • Pediatric Orthopaedics

                • Spine

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