JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 26, No. 9


Clinical Applications of Ultrasonography in the Shoulder and Elbow

In the past 30 years, the use of ultrasonography in the field of orthopaedics has evolved. As ultrasonography has been refined, smaller machines with higher fidelity and better transducers have become available at a lower cost. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of ultrasonography in the shoulder and elbow have expanded imaging options and provided alternatives to surgical management. Ultrasonography is a dynamic tool that affords immediate diagnostic assessment for clinical correlation and can be used for serial examinations and image guidance during therapeutic procedures. This imaging modality is highly reliable and accurate and may limit the need for costly imaging referrals, particularly in geographic areas where advanced imaging is not readily available. However, clinical expertise is paramount for ultrasonography, which is an operator-dependent modality. Ultrasonography is an effective educational resource; therefore, the curriculum in orthopaedic residency training programs should include education on this modality as the use of ultrasonography increases among orthopaedic surgeons.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Shoulder and Elbow,

    Decreased Hip Internal Rotation Increases the Risk of Back and Abdominal Muscle Injuries in Professional Baseball Players: Analysis of 258 Player-seasons

    Introduction: The relationship of hip range of motion (ROM) to shoulder, elbow, abdominal, and back injuries remains undefined.

    Methods: We assessed hip ROM on players reporting to Major League Spring Training for an organization over six seasons (2010 to 2015). Hip ROM was correlated with player abdominal, back, shoulder, and elbow injury status for those seasons using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis.

    Results: A total of 258 player-seasons (129 pitchers and 129 position players) resulted in 20 back and 35 abdominal injuries across all players and 28 elbow and 25 shoulder injuries in pitchers. Hip ROM did not correlate with shoulder or elbow injuries. Hip internal rotation deficit of 5° correlated with core injury (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; P = 0.024 for pitchers; OR, 1.35; P = 0.026 for position players) and back injury (OR, 1.160; P = 0.022 for pitchers).

    Discussion: Hip internal rotation deficits were predictive of back and abdominal injuries but not shoulder or elbow injury.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Sports Medicine,

        • Hip,

      Distal Femoral Varus Osteotomy for the Management of Valgus Deformity of the Knee

      Distal femoral varus osteotomy is a well-described treatment option for patients with valgus malalignment associated with a variety of underlying conditions. This procedure may be the definitive treatment option in active patients with isolated lateral compartment osteoarthritis or posttraumatic arthritis. It may be a useful concomitant procedure in young patients with lateral meniscus deficiency, focal chondral defects, chronic medial collateral ligament insufficiency, and/or patellofemoral instability. Distal femoral varus osteotomy can be performed with medial closing wedge or lateral opening wedge techniques. Variable outcomes and complication rates have been reported. A framework for the use of distal femoral varus osteotomy can aid the orthopaedic surgeon in the evaluation and treatment of patients with symptomatic valgus malalignment.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Knee,

          • Adult Reconstruction,

        Mixed Treatment Comparisons for Nonsurgical Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis: A Network Meta-analysis

        Introduction: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a significant health problem with lifetime risk of development estimated to be 45%. Effective nonsurgical treatments are needed for the management of symptoms.

        Methods: We designed a network meta-analysis to determine clinically relevant effectiveness of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, acetaminophen, intra-articular (IA) corticosteroids, IA platelet-rich plasma, and IA hyaluronic acid compared with each other as well as with oral and IA placebos. We used PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to perform a systematic search of KOA treatments with no date limits and last search on October 7, 2015. Article inclusion criteria considered the following: target population, randomized controlled study design, English language, human subjects, treatments and outcomes of interest, ≥30 patients per group, and consistent follow-up. Using the best available evidence, two abstractors independently extracted pain and function data at or near the most common follow-up time.

        Results: For pain, all active treatments showed significance over oral placebo, with IA corticosteroids having the largest magnitude of effect and significant difference only over IA placebo. For function, no IA treatments showed significance compared with either placebo, and naproxen was the only treatment showing clinical significance compared with oral placebo. Cumulative probabilities showed naproxen to be the most effective individual treatment, and when combined with IA corticosteroids, it is the most probable to improve pain and function.

        Discussion: Naproxen ranked most effective among conservative treatments of KOA and should be considered when treating pain and function because of its relative safety and low cost. The best available evidence was analyzed, but there were instances of inconsistency in the design and duration among articles, potentially affecting uniform data inclusion.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Knee,

            • Adult Reconstruction,

          Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Knee

          The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Knee. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The Surgical Management of Osteoarthritis of the Knee AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from indications of patients under consideration for surgical treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee as well as from current evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and supporting literature to identify the appropriateness of the three treatments. The 864 patient scenarios and 3 treatments were developed by the writing panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, a separate, multidisciplinary, voting panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May Be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

              • Subspecialty:
              • Knee,

              • Adult Reconstruction,

            The Use of Closed Incision Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy in Orthopaedic Surgery

            Wound complications and surgical site infections after orthopaedic procedures result in substantial morbidity and costs. Traditional postoperative wound care consists of applying sterile, dry gauze and abdominal pads to the surgical site, with more frequent dressing changes performed in cases in which wound drainage is excessive. Persistent incisional drainage is of particular concern because it increases the risk of deep infection. The use of closed incision negative-pressure wound therapy (ciNPWT) to manage delayed wound healing was first reported a decade ago, and the benefits of this treatment modality include wound contraction with diminished tensile forces, stabilization of the wound environment, decreased edema and improved removal of exudate, and increased blood and lymphatic flow. Numerous trauma, plastic surgery, and general surgery studies have demonstrated that ciNPWT improves wound healing. In orthopaedic surgery, ciNPWT has been shown to be clinically effective for incisions at high risk for perioperative complications. However, specific indications for ciNPWT continue to be defined.

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