JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 27, No. 10


Contemporary Management of Appendicular Skeletal Metastasis by Primary Tumor Type

Skeletal metastases exert a profound effect on patients and society, and will be encountered by most orthopedic surgeons. Once a primary malignancy is diagnosed, multidisciplinary management should focus on maximizing the quality of life while minimizing disease- and treatment-related morbidity. This may be best achieved with discerning attention to the unique characteristics of primary cancer types, including pathologic fracture healing rates, longevity, and efficacy of adjuvant therapies. Some lesions may respond well to nonsurgical measures, whereas others may require surgery. A single surgical intervention should allow immediate unrestricted activity and outlive the patient. In certain scenarios, a therapeutic benefit may be provided by excision with a curative intent. In these scenarios, or when endoprosthetic reconstruction is necessary, patients may be best referred to an orthopedic oncologist.

      • Subspecialty:
      • General Orthopaedics

    Surgical Management of Neuromas of the Hand and Wrist

    Neuromas of the hand and wrist are common causes of peripheral nerve pain. Neuromas are formed after the nerve sustains an injury, and they can be debilitating and painful. The diagnosis is made by a thorough history and physical examination. The treatment options are quite varied, but conservative measures tailored to the patient should be initiated first. No surgical treatment has been proven superior to others or to nonsurgical treatment.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Hand and Wrist

      Ultrasound-Guided Hip Injections

      The diagnosis of hip pain can be difficult to isolate because the discomfort can originate from several locations and compensatory pain patterns. Pain generators can include the intra- and extra-articular hip structures, the lumbar spine, the pelvic floor, or a combination of these. It can also be referred as pain from the bowel, bladder, or reproductive organs. Injections into and around the hip have become an important part of both diagnostic and nonsurgical treatment algorithm for hip pain. The proximity of the hip to important neurovascular structures, lack of palpable anatomic landmarks, and deep location of targets can make use of ultrasonography-guided injections ideal. These injections have been growing in popularity in the orthopedic community because ultrasonography allows for a real-time visualization of dynamic anatomy without any radiation exposure to the patient and physician. The use of ultrasonography has allowed for in-office image guidance with improved accuracy for more targeted and advanced procedures. The patient’s response to these injections can help guide patient selection for surgery and allow for better pain control of the soft-tissue pathology that often accompanies intra-articular pathology. This article highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic value of ultrasonography-guided hip injections for an orthopedic practice. The focus is on sonographic anatomy, introduction to technique, common indications, and pearls and pitfalls of these procedures.

      STATUSONLINE-ONLY

          • Subspecialty:
          • Adult Reconstruction

        Scheuermann's Kyphosis: Diagnosis, Management, and Selecting Fusion Levels

        Scheuermann's kyphosis (SK) is a rigid structural deformity of the thoracic spine defined radiographically as three or more contiguous vertebrae with at least 5° of wedging anteriorly. Prevalence of the disease is thought to be between 0.4% and 10%. The true cause of SK remains unclear; however, various theories include growth irregularities, mechanical factors, genetic factors, and/or poor bone quality as the causes. Patients with mild disease (less than 70°) generally have a favorable prognosis with good clinical outcomes. Most patients with SK are successfully treated nonsurgically with observation, anti-inflammatory medications, and physical therapy. Surgical intervention is indicated in patients with greater than 70° to 75° thoracic curves, greater than 25° to 30° thoracolumbar curves, intractable pain, neurologic deficit, cardiopulmonary compromise, or poor cosmesis. Because of advances in posterior spinal instrumentation, surgery can typically be performed through a posterior-only approach. When surgical treatment is planned, appropriate selection of the upper- and lower-instrumented vertebrae is important to achieve a well-balanced spine, preserve motion segments, and reduce the risk of junctional kyphosis.

        STATUSONLINE-ONLY

            • Subspecialty:
            • General Orthopaedics

          The Role of Athletic Event Coverage in Orthopaedic Residency Training: A National Survey of Residency Program Directors

          Introduction: No Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines exist regarding athletic event coverage by orthopaedic residents. This study assesses the availability and characteristics of event coverage opportunities in residency programs.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Sports Medicine

              • General Orthopaedics

            Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Osteoporotic Tibia: A Biomechanical Evaluation of the Role of Stem Extensions and Cementing Techniques

            Introduction: Poor functional outcomes and aseptic loosening increase when total knee arthroplasty is performed on osteoporotic patients. This biomechanical study evaluated the effect of stem extension on the stability of tibial fixation using different cementing techniques.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Adult Reconstruction

              Incidence and Risk Factors Associated with Venous Thromboembolism After Orthopaedic Below-knee Surgery

              Introduction: Among patients undergoing below-knee orthopaedic surgery, no consensus exists regarding the need for or type of postoperative prophylaxis to prevent venous thromboembolic (VTE) events. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and risk factors associated with symptomatic VTE among orthopaedic patients undergoing below-knee surgery who were subject to different types of pharmacologic thromboprophylactic strategies.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Adult Reconstruction

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