JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 27, No. 2


Management of the Failed Arthroplasty for Proximal Humerus Fracture

A variety of reasons exist for failure of arthroplasty performed for management of proximal humerus fracture. Revision surgery for these failures is complex and has a high likelihood of inferior outcomes compared with primary arthroplasty. Successful management requires consideration of various modes of failure including tuberosity malunion or resorption, rotator cuff deficiency, glenoid arthritis, bone loss, component loosening, stiffness, or infection. Although revision to a reverse shoulder arthroplasty is an appealing option to address instability, rotator cuff dysfunction, and glenoid arthritis, there are concerns with higher complication rates and inferior results compared with primary reverse replacement. Any treatment plan should appropriately address the cause for failure to optimize outcomes.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Trauma

      • Shoulder and Elbow

    Management of Isolated Lateral Malleolus Fractures

    Isolated lateral malleolus fractures represent one of the most common injuries encountered by orthopaedic surgeons. Nevertheless, appropriate diagnosis and management of these injuries are not clearly understood. Ankle stability is maintained by ligamentous and bony anatomy. The deep deltoid ligament is considered the primary stabilizer of the ankle. In the setting of an isolated lateral malleolus fracture, identifying injury to this ligament and associated ankle instability influences management. The most effective methods for assessing tibiotalar instability include stress and weight-bearing radiographs. Clinical examination findings are important but less reliable. Advanced imaging may not be accurate for guiding management. If the ankle is stable, nonsurgical management produces excellent outcomes. In the case that clinical/radiographic findings are indicative of ankle instability, surgical fixation options include lateral or posterolateral plating or intramedullary fixation. Locking plates and small or minifragment fixation are important adjuncts for the surgeon to consider based on individual patient needs.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Trauma

        • Foot and Ankle

      Optimizing Clinical Use of Biologics in Orthopaedic Surgery: Consensus Recommendations From the 2018 AAOS/NIH U-13 Conference

      Concern that misinformation from direct-to-consumer marketing of largely unproven “biologic” treatments such as platelet-rich plasma and cell-based therapies may erode the public trust and the responsible investment needed to bring legitimate biological therapies to patients have resulted in calls to action from professional organizations and governing bodies. In response to substantial patient demand for biologic treatment of orthopaedic conditions, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons convened a collaborative symposium and established a consensus framework for improving and accelerating the clinical evaluation, use, and optimization of biologic therapies for musculoskeletal diseases. The economic and disease burden of musculoskeletal conditions is high. Of the various conditions discussed, knee osteoarthritis was identified as a “serious condition” associated with substantial and progressive morbidity and emerged as the condition with the most urgent need for clinical trial development. It was also recognized that stem cells have unique characteristics that are not met by minimally manipulated mixed cell preparations. The work group recommended that minimally manipulated cell products be referred to as cell therapy and that the untested and uncharacterized nature of these treatments be clearly communicated within the profession, to patients, and to the public. Minimum standards for product characterization and clinical research should also be followed. A framework for developing clinical trials related to knee OA was agreed upon. In addition to recommendations for development of high-quality multicenter clinical trials, another important recommendation was that physicians and institutions offering biologic therapies commit to establishing high-quality patient registries and biorepository-linked registries that can be used for postmarket surveillance and quality assessments.

          • Subspecialty:
          • General Orthopaedics

        Chronic Medial Epicondyle Avulsion: Technique of Fragment Excision and Ligament Reconstruction With Internal Brace Augmentation

        Medial epicondyle fracture nonunions of the elbow may lead to symptomatic instability in the high-demand or overhead athlete. These injuries are challenging to treat surgically because of the small residual bony fragment, the scarred and shortened chronically injured ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), which prevents it from being mobilized and reduced to its native position. To date, most described methods aim at reducing the displaced fragment and achieving union with the humerus. This usually can only be accomplished by releasing of the scarred UCL to mobilize the fragment. The scarred and attenuated residual ligament is then repaired to restore stability but is often inadequate to sustain high-level valgus loads. We describe a technique of excision of the bony fragment and UCL reconstruction with allograft, augmented with internal brace to provide medial stability to the elbow. The described method allows proper tensioning of the graft and provides immediate and secure fixation.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Shoulder and Elbow

          Outpatient Total Hip Arthroplasty in the United States: A Population-based Comparative Analysis of Complication Rates

          Introduction: With healthcare expenditure in the national forefront, outpatient arthroplasty is an appealing option in select patient populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the complication rates associated with outpatient total hip arthroplasty (THA) in comparison to standard inpatient THA.

          Methods: We performed a retrospective review of the Humana subset of the PearlDiver insurance records database to identify patients undergoing THA (Current Procedural Terminology-27130 and Current Procedural Terminology-27132) as either outpatients or inpatients from 2007 to 2016. Multivariate logistic regression adjusting for age, gender, and Charlson Comorbidity Index were used to calculate odds ratios of complications among outpatients undergoing THA relative to inpatients undergoing THA.

          Results: The query identified 2,184 patients who underwent outpatient THA and 73,596 patients who underwent inpatient THA. The median age was in the 65 to 69 age group and in the 70 to 74 age group for the outpatient and inpatient cohorts, respectively (P < 0.001). Outpatients undergoing THA had a significantly lower incidence of comorbid hypertension (P < 0.001), cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.017), chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (P = 0.045), and chronic kidney disease (P = 0.049). The incidence of both outpatient THA (P = 0.001) and inpatient THA (P < 0.001) increased over the study period. After adjusting for age, gender, and Charlson Comorbidity Index, patients undergoing outpatient THA had comparable rates of all queried surgical complications, including component revision, irrigation and debridement, and hip dislocation at 1 year. Rates of postoperative medical complications were also comparable between the two cohorts.

          Conclusion: Outpatient THA is increasing in frequency nationwide and has comparable postoperative complication rates. With its potential to minimize arthroplasty care costs, outpatient THA is a safe and effective option among appropriately selected patients.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Adult Reconstruction

            Treatment Patterns and Outcomes of Stable Hips in Infants With Ultrasonic Dysplasia

            Introduction: No clear practice guideline exists for the management of stable hip with ultrasonic dysplasia (UD). This study assessed the treatment patterns for stable UD and determined the outcomes of Pavlik harness (PH) treatment or observation (OB).

            Methods: This is a prospective study of 80 infants (107 hips) aged ≤12 weeks at presentation diagnosed with stable UD.

            Results: Sixty-five hips were treated with PH, whereas 42 hips were observed. Patients who were older at the time of initial sonogram and those with lower head coverage were more likely to be treated with PH. The mean head coverage was lower in the PH group, indicating more severe UD. At a 2-year follow-up period, 93% of patients in the OB group and 87% in the PH group had a good radiographic outcome.

            Discussion: Head coverage and age at first sonogram had a significant influence on the treatment decision for PH. A milder ultrasonic hip dysplasia can be observed because 93% of the patients who were observed had a good outcome.

            Level of Evidence: Level II: prospective cohort study

                • Subspecialty:
                • Pediatric Orthopaedics

              Outcome of Surgical Treatment of Hip Femoroacetabular Impingement Patients with Radiographic Osteoarthritis: A Meta-analysis of Prospective Studies

              Introduction: In this study, the prognostic value of osteoarthritis (OA) on the overall failure rate, pain, and function of surgical management of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) was evaluated via meta-analysis.

              Methods: Relevant comparative studies were obtained from PubMed, OVID, and Cochrane database up until April 2016. Studies were selected according to the eligibility criteria. The study design, participant characteristics, interventions, and outcomes were reviewed after the assessment of methodological quality of each trial. All data were analyzed by Review Manager 5.3.

              Results: Seven studies were identified with 1,129 total patients, with 819 patients in the FAI group and 310 patients in the FAI with OA group. Pooled analyses showed that the overall failure rate was significantly higher in the FAI-OA group than in the FAI group (odds ratio, 8.50; 95% confidence interval, 4.44 to 16.26; P < 0.00001). In addition, the rate of conversion to total hip arthroplasty was significantly higher in the FAI-OA group (37.3%) than in the FAI group (9.7%) (odds ratio, 19.42; 95% confidence interval, 7.00 to 53.85; P < 0.00001).

              Conclusions: We found that radiographic OA was correlated with higher failure rates, increased conversion to total hip arthroplasty, and worse outcomes after surgical management of FAI.

              Level of Evidence: Level II

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Adult Reconstruction

                Patient and Practice Trends in Total Ankle Replacement and Tibiotalar Arthrodesis in the United States From 2007 to 2013

                Introduction: Both total ankle replacement (TAR) and tibiotalar arthrodesis (TTA) are used in the surgical management of ankle arthritis. Over the past decade, TAR instrumentation, techniques, and implants have improved, making the procedure more reliable and reproducible, thus making TAR more common.

                Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2007 to 2013 was used to obtain data on patients elder than 50 years who underwent either TAR or TTA. Differences in temporal, demographic, and diagnosis trends between TAR and TTA were analyzed.

                Results: Between 2007 and 2013, 15,060 patients underwent TAR and 35,096 underwent TTA. Patients undergoing TTA had significantly more comorbidities (2.17 versus 1.55; P < 0.001). The share of TAR performed increased significantly from 2007 (14%) to 2013 (45%) (P < 0.001). From 2007 to 2013, we found a 12-fold increase in the odds of having a TAR for patients with posttraumatic osteoarthritis (P < 0.001), a 4.9-fold increase for those with primary osteoarthritis, and a 3.1-fold increase for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (P < 0.001).

                Conclusions: Over the past decade, the frequency of TAR has increased, particularly in patients with posttraumatic arthritis and osteoarthritis. Surgeons still perform TAR in healthier patients compared with TTA; however, because surgeons become more experienced with the technique, patients are undergoing TAR at a markedly higher rate.

                Level of Evidence: Level III: retrospective comparative study

                    • Subspecialty:
                    • Foot and Ankle

                  Recurrent Fragility Fractures: A Cross-sectional Analysis

                  Introduction: Despite growing rates of fragility fractures, there has been a lack of research investigating the risk and characteristics of recurrent fragility fractures.

                  Methods: The Medicare Standard Analytic Files database was used to identify patients from 2005 to 2009 who were older than 65 years, had a diagnosis of osteoporosis or osteopenia, and sustained a fragility fracture of the proximal humerus, distal radius, hip, ankle, or vertebral column. The incidence and type of recurrent fragility fracture were tracked over a 36-month period.

                  Results: A total of 1,059,212 patients had an initial fragility fracture from 2005 to 2009. Of these patients, 5.8% had a subsequent fragility fracture within 1 year for their initial fracture, 8.8% within 2 years, and 11.3% within 3 years. At 3-year follow-up, hip fractures were the most common type of subsequent fracture, regardless of the initial fracture type (6.5%, P < 0.001). Vertebral compression and proximal humerus fractures (13.8% and 13.2%, respectively) were most likely to be associated with a recurrent fragility fracture.

                  Conclusion: Patients who have any type of fragility fracture have a notable risk of subsequent fractures within 3 years, especially hip fractures. These patients should be evaluated and treated for underlying risks factors, including osteoporosis and/or osteopenia.

                  Level of Evidence: Retrospective, level III

                      • Subspecialty:
                      • Trauma

                    A Compatibility Guide for the Orthopaedic Surgeon Planning to Perform Hardware Removal Surgery

                    Background: Removal of previously placed orthopaedic implants is a commonly performed procedure worldwide. Given the diversity of orthopaedic implant manufacturers, surgeons may be uncertain whether they have the appropriate screwdriver on site. The purpose of this study was to assess the compatibility of screw head and size configurations from various orthopaedic manufacturers with two commonly used universal screw removal sets.

                    Methods: Inclusion of orthopaedic implant manufacturers was determined by market share based on industry-monitoring financial firms. Screw size and drive type for the top grossing orthopaedic implant manufacturers were collected and recorded. Screw and screwdriver compatibility was assessed and compared with two commonly used universal screw removal sets.

                    Results: In total, six orthopaedic implant companies with commonly implanted screws throughout the appendicular skeleton were included. The data were compiled in table format with noncannulated, cannulated, and locking screw offerings separated by the screw size and manufacturer. Guidewire size compatibility for cannulated offerings was also assessed.

                    Conclusions: Given the ubiquity of implanted orthopaedic implant, removal must be as safe, planned, and controlled as possible. The data in this article provide an inclusive, centralized resource for surgeons looking to confirm the compatibility of previously implanted screws and available removal equipment at their institution.

                        • Subspecialty:
                        • General Orthopaedics

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