JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 27, No. 3


Meniscal and Chondral Pathology Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures are commonly associated with meniscal and articular cartilage injuries, and the presence of these defects influences both short- and long-term outcomes. Multiple variables are predictive of this pathology including time from injury, age, and sex. Revision ACL reconstructions demonstrate higher rates of chondral injury than primary reconstructions. Menisci are important secondary stabilizers of the knee in the setting of ACL deficiency, and specific tear types are more consistently associated with ACL injury. Successful outcomes with multiple treatment options for meniscal tears in conjunction with ACL reconstruction have been reported. Maintaining meniscal integrity may be protective of both joint surfaces and graft stability in the long term; however, clear treatment recommendations for tear subtypes remain ill defined. High-grade chondral defects have the most consistent and potentially largest negative effect on long-term patient-reported outcomes; however, optimal treatment is also controversial with successful results demonstrated with several modalities including benign neglect.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Adult Reconstruction

    Diagnosing Sacroiliac Joint Pain

    The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is a diarthrodial joint that has been implicated as a pain generator in approximately 10% to 25% of patients with mechanical low back or leg symptoms. Unique anatomic and physiologic characteristics of SIJ make it susceptible to mechanical stress and also create challenges in the diagnosis of SIJ pain. A variety of inciting causes for SIJ pain may exist, ranging from repetitive low-impact activities such as jogging to increased stress after multilevel spine fusion surgery to high-energy trauma such as in motor vehicle accidents. Similarly, wide variability exists in the clinical presentation of SIJ pain from localized pain or tenderness around the SIJ to radiating pain into the groin or even the entire lower extremity. No pathognomonic clinical history, physical examination finding, or imaging study exists that aids clinicians in making a reliable diagnosis. However, imaging combined with clinical provocative tests might help to identify patients for further investigation. Although provocative physical examination tests have not received reliable consensus, if three or more provocative tests are positive, pursuing a diagnostic SIJ injection is considered reasonable. Notable pain relief with intra-articular anesthetic injection under radiographic guidance has been shown to provide reliable evidence in the diagnosis of SIJ pain.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Pain Management

        • Adult Reconstruction

      Cervical Disk Arthroplasty

      Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion has been and remains the benchmark surgical management of cervical degenerative disk disease. However, an increased use of cervical disk arthroplasty (CDA) has been found in the past few years. The purported benefits of CDA included preserved motion, less adjacent-level degeneration, and less morbidity. Short-term results from randomized control trials clearly showed noninferiority of CDA compared with fusion. With long-term comparison data becoming available, results are equivalent and superior in many metrics compared, favoring CDA. Concerns remain regarding the best way to manage CDA failures. Nonetheless, appropriate patient selection and adherence to strict surgical technique make CDA a viable treatment.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Spine

        Biologic Adjuvants for the Management of Osteochondral Lesions of the Talus

        Surgical techniques for the management of recalcitrant osteochondral lesions of the talus have improved; however, the poor healing potential of cartilage may impede long-term outcomes. Repair (microfracture) or replacement (osteochondral transplants) is the standard of care. Reparative strategies lead to production of fibrocartilage, which, compared with the native type II articular cartilage, has decreased mechanical and wear properties. The success of osteochondral transplants may be hindered by poor integration between grafts and host that results in peripheral cell death and cyst formation. These challenges have led to the investigation of biologic adjuvants to augment treatment. In vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated promise for cartilage regeneration by decreasing inflammatory damage and increasing the amount of type II articular cartilage. Further research is needed to investigate optimal formulations and time points of administration. In addition, clinical trials are needed to investigate the long-term effects of augmentation.

            • Subspecialty:
            • Foot and Ankle

          Validation of Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Computer Adaptive Tests in Lumbar Disk Herniation Surgery

          Introduction: Inadequate validation, floor/ceiling effects, and time constraints limit utilization of standardized patient-reported outcome measures. We aimed to validate Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) computer adaptive tests (CATs) for patients treated surgically for a lumbar disk herniation.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Spine

            Reporting the Influence of Sex in Research: Trends at AAOS Annual Meetings

            Background: Several initiatives have urged the inclusion of sex in data analysis, but few studies have examined the prevalence of sex-specific reporting in musculoskeletal research. This study aims at determining the presence of sex-specific analyses reported in research at American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Annual Meetings.

                • Subspecialty:
                • General Orthopaedics

              Evaluation of US Orthopaedic Surgery Academic Centers Based on Measurements of Academic Achievement

              Introduction: Although a variety of agencies have attempted to evaluate the academic achievements of orthopaedic surgery academic centers, most use opaque criteria that are difficult to interpret and do not provide clear targets for improvement. This study leverages a weighted algorithm using objective measurements that has been linked to academic achievement to attempt to provide a comprehensive assessment of scholarly accomplishment for orthopaedic surgery academic centers.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • General Orthopaedics

                Cost Comparison of Surgically Treated Ankle Fractures Managed in an Inpatient Versus Outpatient Setting

                Introduction: Although choices physicians make profoundly affect the cost of health care, few surgeons know relative costs associated with the setting in which care is provided. Without valid cost information, surgeons cannot understand how their choices affect the total cost of care.

                    • Subspecialty:
                    • Foot and Ankle

                  A Comparison of Geriatric Hip Fracture Databases

                  Introduction: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (NSQIP) and the Trauma Quality Improvement Project (TQIP) collect data on geriatric hip fractures (GHFs) that could be used to generate risk-adjusted metrics for care of these patients. We examined differences between GHFs reported by our own trauma center to the NSQIP and TQIP and those vetted through an internal GHF list.

                      • Subspecialty:
                      • Trauma

                      • Adult Reconstruction

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