JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 27, No. 6


Aquatic Orthopaedic Injuries

Extremity injuries sustained in aquatic environments require unique considerations compared with injuries sustained on land. Knowledge of these considerations is becoming more important as aquatic recreational activities increase in popularity. Aquatic injuries may occur through mechanical contact with a variety of different objects or surfaces, such as a recreational device or watercraft part, or may occur through contact with marine animals. Marine animal injuries can be further categorized into bites, stings, or blunt contact, as well as venomous or nonvenomous, distinctions that should be used to guide clinical management. Numerous instances of retained foreign bodies after marine animal stings exist, which can result in infection and prolonged envenomization; thus, radiographic examination should be routinely performed in aquatic sting injuries to prevent these harmful sequelae. Any aquatic injury resulting in an open wound has an increased risk for infection, and prophylactic antibiotics must be given with consideration for the unique microbiologic flora of the aquatic environment.

      • Subspecialty:
      • General Orthopaedics

    Scapular Notching in Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty

    Scapular notching is a common radiographic finding occurring after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty, and it refers to an erosive lesion of the inferior scapular neck because of the impingement of the humeral implant during adduction. The clinical importance of notching is unclear, and the optimal treatment of severe notching is unknown. The incidence and severity of scapular notching is related to prosthetic design and surgical technique. Implant design factors include size, shape, and position of the glenosphere, inclination of the humeral neck-shaft angle, implant offset, and native scapular anatomy. Scapular notching may lead to deterioration of functional outcomes and glenoid implant loosening and failure. Lateral offset, inferior glenosphere overhang, and careful consideration of the presurgical glenoid morphology may help prevent scapular notching. Currently, there is limited evidence to direct the management of scapular notching, and further research is needed to elucidate optimal prevention and treatment strategies.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Shoulder and Elbow

      Quality Measures in Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty

      Introduction: Total joint arthroplasty represents the largest expense for a single condition among Medicare beneficiaries. Payment models exist, such as bundled payments, where physicians and hospitals are reimbursed based on providing cost-efficient, high-quality care. There is a need to explicitly define “quality” relevant to hip and knee arthroplasty. Based on prior quality measure research, we hypothesized that less than 20% of developed quality measures are outcome measures.

          • Subspecialty:
          • Adult Reconstruction

        Perioperative Management of the Orthopaedic Patient and Alcohol Use, Abuse, and Withdrawal

        Alcohol is one of most commonly abused substances in the United States, and it has contributed to a growing epidemic of medical ailments, including cirrhosis, neurologic and psychosocial disorders, impairment to fertility, and cancer. Moreover, acute and chronic alcohol use represent a significant risk factor for orthopaedic injury and postoperative complications. Yet, relatively little is known about the clinical implications of alcohol abuse in common orthopaedic procedures. Acute withdrawal from alcohol is potentially fatal, particularly in the orthopaedic inpatient whose abstinence is mandated by the hospital setting. The aim of this review is to address the screening, diagnostic, and therapeutic tools available to appropriately manage acute alcohol withdrawal in the orthopaedic inpatient. The influence of chronic alcohol consumption on bone metabolism, fracture healing, and surgical fixation will also be reviewed because this information may guide surgical decision making.

        STATUSONLINE-ONLY

            • Subspecialty:
            • General Orthopaedics

          Evaluation and Treatment of Patients With Acetabular Osteolysis After Total Hip Arthroplasty

          As the demand for total hip arthroplasty (THA) continues to increase, the burden of revision THA is also expected to increase. Although the quality of polyethylene has improved markedly, osteolysis continues to be a risk for older designs and younger, active patients. Although progressive but typically asymptomatic in early stages, osteolysis can result in component failure and complicate revision surgery. Serial radiographs are paramount for monitoring progression. Although select cases may be treated with observation, surgery should be considered based on age, activity level, and projected life span. Well-fixed, noncemented modular acetabular components may be treated with curettage and bone grafting, as well as having to bear liner exchange with retention of the acetabular shell. However, in the setting of osteolysis, it is controversial whether bone grafting and component retention is superior to cup revision. This review explores the pathophysiology of osteolysis after THA and provides a comprehensive analysis of the evaluation and treatment of patients with osteolysis.

          STATUSONLINE-ONLY

              • Subspecialty:
              • General Orthopaedics

            Congenital Tibial Deficiency

            Congenital tibial deficiency is a rare condition characterized by partial to complete absence of the tibia, an intact but frequently overgrown fibula, variable degrees of knee deformity and function, and an abnormal equinovarus foot. It can occur in isolation but also presents concurrently with other orthopaedic anomalies and syndromic conditions. Among these, congenital abnormalities of the hand and femur are most commonly observed. Many theories exist regarding its etiology and some genetic mutations have been identified; however, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The prognosis and treatment differ based on the clinical severity. The goal of treatment is always to create a stable, functional limb, most commonly with amputation and use of prosthetics. Controversy exists over the level of amputation and the usefulness of reconstructive procedures to preserve the foot and limb length. Current investigation on this complex disorder is focused on identifying its origins and further developing a classification-based treatment algorithm to improve patient outcomes.

            STATUSONLINE-ONLY

                • Subspecialty:
                • Foot and Ankle

              Updates on and Controversies Related to Management of Radial Nerve Injuries

              Radial nerve injuries are among the most common major traumatic peripheral nerve injuries. Recent literature has updated our knowledge of aspects ranging from radial nerve anatomy to treatment options. Observation and tendon transfers were, and still are, the mainstays of management. However, the improved outcomes of nerve repair even 5 months after injury have changed the treatment algorithm. Nerve repair techniques using conduits, wraps, autograft, and allograft allow tension-free coaptations to improve success. Nerve transfers have evolved to allow a more anatomic recovery of function if used in a timely manner. This review offers an update on radial nerve injuries that reflects recent advances.

              STATUSONLINE-ONLY

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • Hand and Wrist

                  • Shoulder and Elbow

                Predictive Modeling for Geriatric Hip Fracture Patients: Early Surgery and Delirium Have the Largest Influence on Length of Stay

                Background: Averaging length of stay (LOS) ignores patient complexity and is a poor metric for quality control in geriatric hip fracture programs. We developed a predictive model of LOS that compares patient complexity to the logistic effects of our institution's hip fracture care pathway.

                    • Subspecialty:
                    • Trauma

                    • General Orthopaedics

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