JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 27, No. 7


Glenohumeral Dislocation Arthropathy: Etiology, Diagnosis, and Management

Dislocation arthropathy describes the development of progressive degenerative changes of the glenohumeral joint in the setting of instability. Although the specific etiology remains unclear, the trauma of a single dislocation, repetitive injury associated with recurrent dislocations, changes in shoulder biomechanics, and complications associated with instability surgery have all been implicated in its development. Pain and restricted range of motion are the most common patient complaints. Conservative management, consisting of pain control, activity modification, and physical therapy, is the first-line treatment after the development of arthropathy. If conservative management fails, multiple surgical options exist. Arthroscopic débridement can be attempted in young, active patients and in those patients with mild-to-moderate arthropathy. Open subscapularis lengthening and capsular release can be done in patients with prior instability repairs that are overly tight. In young patients with minimal bone loss and glenoid wear, surface replacement arthroplasty and hemiarthroplasty are surgical options. In older patients with moderate-to-severe arthropathy, total shoulder or reverse shoulder arthroplasty is the preferred treatment option. Further study is needed to better predict which patients will develop dislocation arthropathy and will thus benefit from early surgical intervention.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Shoulder and Elbow

    Common Tumors and Tumor-like Lesions of the Shoulder

    Shoulder lesions range from tumor-like lesions such as simple bone cysts to aggressive high-grade sarcomas. The clinical presentation is often nonspecific with shoulder pain as the primary complaint, which may lead to a delayed or missed diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis or a poorly planned biopsy of a malignant shoulder lesion can have a detrimental effect on the patient's prognosis and treatment options. Because the initial patient assessment is crucial for successful treatment, knowledge of the key features of common shoulder tumors and tumor-like conditions can help determine the diagnosis and treatment plan. This article reviews the key features and treatment options of the more commonly encountered benign and malignant shoulder bone and soft-tissue tumors and tumor-like conditions.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Shoulder and Elbow

      Gunshot Wounds to the Upper Extremity

      Upper extremity gunshot wounds result in notable morbidity for the orthopaedic trauma patient. Critical neurovascular structures are particularly at risk. The fractures are often comminuted and may be associated with a variable degree of soft-tissue injury. The literature lacks consensus regarding antibiotic selection and duration, and indications for surgical débridement. Bullets and/or bullet fragments should be removed in cases of plumbism, intra-articular location, nerve impingement, location within a vessel, and location in a subcutaneous position within the hand and/or wrist. Gunshot fractures generally do not follow common fracture patterns seen in blunt injuries, and the complexity of certain gunshot fractures can often be a challenge for the treating orthopaedic surgeon. Common plate and screw constructs may not adequately stabilize these injuries, and innovative fixation techniques may be required. The treatment for bone defects varies by location and severity of injury, and typically requires staged treatment. Nerve injuries after gunshot wounds are common, but spontaneous nerve recovery is expected in most cases.

      STATUSONLINE-ONLY

          • Subspecialty:
          • Trauma

          • Hand and Wrist

          • Shoulder and Elbow

          • General Orthopaedics

        Alzheimer Dementia in the Orthopaedic Patient

        Alzheimer disease is a neurologic disorder characterized by the progressive cognitive decline. As the population continues to age, orthopaedic surgeons need to become familiar with surgical and nonsurgical treatment considerations in this complex population. Despite the advances in geriatric and dementia care, surgical and postoperative management of both elective and emergent surgery remain complex and controversial in this patient population. Appropriate perioperative and postoperative management can optimize outcomes, and the management can significantly affect the quality of life of patient and caregiver and limit disease burden. Any treatment decision should be guided first and foremost by the goals of care as agreed between the surgeon, other providers, and family. Surgical management must be demand matched to the patient accounting for the severity of disease, life expectancy, and the social support system. The authors conducted a literature review of Alzheimer dementia care in orthopaedic patients via a Pubmed search of relevant articles published since 1980.

        STATUSONLINE-ONLY

            • Subspecialty:
            • General Orthopaedics

          Ten- and 20-year Survivorship of the Hip After Periacetabular Osteotomy for Acetabular Dysplasia

          Introduction: Acetabular dysplasia is a multifactorial condition characterized by a shallow hip socket with predisposition to osteoarthritis of the hip. The Bernese periacetabular osteotomy (PAO), developed by Reinhold Ganz in 1984, reorients the dysplastic hip joint to provide more uniform coverage of the femoral head and to extend the longevity of the native hip. Since 1987, the senior author performed the Bernese PAO on more than 430 patients. We performed a cross-sectional retrospective study on this cohort of patients to determine the 10- and 20-year survivorship after PAO in addition to assessing functional outcomes and radiographic parameters.

              • Subspecialty:
              • Adult Reconstruction

            Cardiac Complications Related to Spine Surgery: Timing, Risk Factors, and Clinical Effect

            Introduction: Large cohort studies evaluating cardiac complications in patients undergoing spine surgery are lacking. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, timing, risk factors, and effect of cardiac complications in spine surgery by using a national database, the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Spine

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