JAAOS

JAAOS, Volume 27, No. 8


Venous Thromboembolism After Shoulder Arthoplasty and Arthroscopy

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the orthopaedic literature largely focuses on lower extremity trauma and arthroplasty, with relatively few investigations of VTE after shoulder surgery. Because the rate of shoulder surgery, especially arthroplasty, continues to expand, it is important for practicing surgeons to understand the magnitude of risk, potential consequences, and prevention methods with regard to VTE. VTE after shoulder surgery has been a topic of increasing interest over the past decade, and the purpose of this review is to examine the recent literature on pathophysiology, risk factors, incidence, diagnosis, sequelae, prevention, treatment, and current recommendations regarding VTE after shoulder surgery.

      • Subspecialty:
      • Shoulder and Elbow

    Total Hip Arthroplasty for Posttraumatic Conditions

    Posttraumatic arthritis accounts for a notable share of secondary osteoarthritis about the hip joint. Compared with total hip arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis or inflammatory arthritis, total hip arthroplasty for posttraumatic arthritis offers greater technical challenges because of bone deformities and retained implants. Careful preoperative evaluation is necessary to prepare the approach, hardware removal strategy, and implants necessary to address bone deficiencies. Although arthroplasty is a highly successful procedure for posttraumatic arthritis, the results are less favorable than surgery for primary osteoarthritis. It is associated with a higher incidence of intraoperative and postoperative complications, including periprosthetic fractures, infection, instability, and decreased survivorship.

        • Subspecialty:
        • Adult Reconstruction

      Fat Embolism and Fat Embolism Syndrome

      Fat embolism (FE) occurs frequently after trauma and during orthopaedic procedures involving manipulation of intramedullary contents. Classically characterized as a triad of pulmonary distress, neurologic symptoms, and petechial rash, the clinical entity of FE syndrome is much less common. Both mechanical and biochemical pathophysiologic theories have been proposed with contributions of vascular obstruction and the inflammatory response to embolized fat and trauma. Recent studies have described the relationship of embolized marrow fat with deep venous thrombosis and postsurgical cognitive decline, but without clear treatment strategies. Because treatment is primarily supportive, our focus must be on prevention. In trauma, early fracture stabilization decreases the rate of FE syndrome; however, questions remain regarding the effect of reaming and management of bilateral femur fractures. In arthroplasty, computer navigation and alternative cementation techniques decrease fat embolization, although the clinical implications of these techniques are currently unclear, illustrating the need for ongoing education and research with an aim toward prevention.

      STATUSONLINE-ONLY

          • Subspecialty:
          • General Orthopaedics

        Management of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants up to Six Months of Age: Intended for Use by General Pediatricians and Referring Physicians

        The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed the Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for the Management of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants up to Six Months of Age: Intended for Use by General Pediatricians and Referring Physicians. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The Management of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants up to Six Months of Age: Intended for Use by General Pediatricians and Referring Physicians AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from indications typical of patients presenting with developmental dysplasia of the hip in clinical practice. The 24 patient scenarios and four treatments were developed by the Writing Panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, a separate multidisciplinary, Voting Panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

        STATUSONLINE-ONLY

            • Subspecialty:
            • Pediatric Orthopaedics

          Management of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants up to Six Months of Age: Intended for Use by Orthopaedic Specialists

          The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons has developed the Appropriate Use Criteria (AUC) for the Management of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants up to Six Months of Age: Intended for Use by Orthopaedic Specialists. Evidence-based information, in conjunction with the clinical expertise of physicians, was used to develop the criteria to improve patient care and obtain best outcomes while considering the subtleties and distinctions necessary in making clinical decisions. The Management of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip in Infants up to Six Months of Age: Intended for Use by Orthopaedic Specialists AUC clinical patient scenarios were derived from indications typical of patients presenting with developmental dysplasia of the hip in clinical practice. The 432 patient scenarios and three treatments were developed by the Writing Panel, a group of clinicians who are specialists in this AUC topic. Next, a separate multidisciplinary, Voting Panel (made up of specialists and nonspecialists) rated the appropriateness of treatment of each patient scenario using a 9-point scale to designate a treatment as Appropriate (median rating, 7 to 9), May be Appropriate (median rating, 4 to 6), or Rarely Appropriate (median rating, 1 to 3).

          STATUSONLINE-ONLY

              • Subspecialty:
              • Pediatric Orthopaedics

            Clinical Practice Guidelines in Action: Differences in Femoral Neck Fracture Management by Trauma and Arthroplasty Training

            Introduction: The purpose of this study was to survey trauma and arthroplasty surgeons to investigate associations between subspecialty training and management of geriatric femoral neck fractures and to compare treatments with the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons clinical practice guidelines.

                • Subspecialty:
                • Adult Reconstruction

              Revisiting the Gender Gap in Orthopaedic Surgery: Investigating the Relationship Between Orthopaedic Surgery Female Faculty and Female Residency Applicants

              Introduction: Although women now constitute approximately half of all graduating medical students, orthopaedic surgery continues to lag behind in its ability to recruit female applicants. One hypothesis for this discrepancy is the lack of female faculty mentors at academic institutions. The three objectives of this study were the following: (1) to quantify the proportion of female orthopaedic surgery residency applicants, (2) to quantify the proportion of female orthopaedic surgery faculty, and (3) to investigate the relationship between female orthopaedic surgery faculty at an academic institution and the corresponding number of female orthopaedic surgery residency applicants.

                  • Subspecialty:
                  • General Orthopaedics

                A Comparison of Limb Salvage Versus Amputation for Nonmetastatic Sarcomas Using Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Outcomes

                Introduction: The Patient-reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) is a scoring tool that allows comparisons between patients with rare conditions and more common ailments, or the general US population. PROMIS outcomes were compared between the limb salvage and amputee patients for nonmetastatic sarcomas to the US population.

                    • Subspecialty:
                    • General Orthopaedics

                  C5 Motor Palsy After Single- and Multi-level Anterior Cervical Diskectomy and Fusion: A Retrospective Review

                  Introduction: Postoperative C5 nerve root palsy is a known complication after cervical surgery. The effect of increasing number of levels fused on the prevalence of C5 palsy after anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is unclear.

                      • Subspecialty:
                      • Spine

                    Orthopaedic Resident Use of an Electronic Medical Record Template Does Not Improve Documentation for Pediatric Supracondylar Humerus Fractures

                    Introduction: Pediatric supracondylar humerus fractures are associated with a high incidence of nerve injury. Therefore, it is imperative that documentation be complete and accurate. This investigation compares orthopaedic resident history and physical (H&P) documentation of pediatric supracondylar fractures for completeness and accuracy with and without the use of an electronic medical record template.

                        • Subspecialty:
                        • Pediatric Orthopaedics

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