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Three-dimensional Intraoperative Imaging Modalities in Orthopaedic Surgery: A Narrative Review

Intraoperative imaging and navigation systems have revolutionized orthopaedic surgery for the spine, joints, and orthopaedic trauma. Imaging modalities such as the isocentric C-arm, O-arm imaging, and intraoperative MRI or navigation systems allow the visualization of surgical instruments and implants relative to a three-dimensional CT image or MRI. Studies show that these technologies lower the rates of implant misplacement and inadequate fracture reduction, thereby improving surgical outcomes and reducing reoperation rates. An additional benefit is reduced radiation exposure compared with that for conventional fluoroscopy. Concerns surrounding adoption of these technologies include cost and increased operating times, but improvements in design and protocol may improve the integration of these imaging modalities into the operating room.

Kudos to 2009 award winners

During the opening ceremonies of the 2009 Annual Meeting in Las Vegas, the AAOS and the Ortho­paedic Research and Education Foundation (OREF) recognized outstanding research with the presentation of the Kappa Delta and OREF Clinical Research awards.

Femoral Component Sizing and Positioning in Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

Hip resurfacing arthroplasty has progressed beyond the evaluation stage and is now being offered as an alternative to standard total hip replacement for young and active patients. Excellent short-term results for hip resurfacing arthroplasty have been demonstrated in several major clinical series. In this video presentation, Dr. Beaulédemonstrates techniques for proper femoral implant positioning and sizing for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing in patients with advanced arthritis. Because the femoral head-neck junction is preserved with hip resurfacing, surgeons cannot rely on prosthetic femoral design to optimize patient outcomes. For metal-on-metal hip resurfacing, restoring the anterior femoral head-neck offset by removing prominent osteophytes will minimize the risk of impingement and optimize femoral component sizing, which in turn helps preserve acetabular bone stock.

Research Development Committee

kappa_winners Kappa Delta Award/OREF Clinical Research Award: Past Winners Below is a listing of years for which award information is available. Please click on the year you wish to see and you will be taken to that years' winner(s). Starting with the 2005 awards, we are making the winning manuscripts available online. Click on the name of the project you would like to view. 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 1950 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Marshall R. Urist and Colleagues Project: The Mechanism of Endosteal Bone Formation in Estrogen Treated Mice Back to Top 1951 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Vernon P. Thompson and Dr Vernon D. Epstein Project: Traumatic Dislocation of the Hip, A Survey of 204 Cases Covering a Period of Twenty-One Years Back to Top 1952 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Robert A. Robinson Project: An Electron Microscopic Study of the Crystalline Inorganic Component of Bone and its Relationship to the Organic Matrix Back to Top 1953 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Charles F. Gregory and Dr George J. Garceau Project: Bone Healing by Vital Staining Methods Back to Top 1954 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Robert D. Ray Project: The Development of Experimental Techniques and Their Application to Studies of Bone Growth and Metabolism Back to Top 1955 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Charles W. Goff Project: The Legg-Calve-Perthes Syndrome Back to Top 1956 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Ignacio V. Ponseti Project: Lesions of the Skeleton and Other Mesodermal Tissues which might be due to Aminoitrile Intake Back to Top 1957 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Leonard F. Peltier Project: An Appraisal of the Problem of Fat Embolism Back to Top 1958 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr W.F. Enneking Project: The Effect of Total Body Irradiation on Bone Transplants in Parabiosed Animals Back to Top 1959 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Melvin J. Glimcher Project: Molecular Structure and Biological Specificity in Mineralization Back to Top 1960 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr William S. Smith Project: A Correlated Clinical and Experimental Approach to the Etiology of Congenital Dislocation of the Hip Back to Top 1961 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Kirk J. Anderson Project: Experimental Investigations of Large and Small Fragment Bone Implants and Extracts of Heterogenous Bone Back to Top 1962 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Robert C. Mellors Project: Rheumatoid Arthritis and the Cellular Origin of Rheumatiod Factors Back to Top 1963 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Mary S. Sherman and Dr Roshen Irani Project: The Pathologic Anatomy of the Clubfoot   Researcher(s): Dr J. William Fielding Project: Cineradiography   Researcher(s): Dr Paul H. Curtis, Jr, and Dr LeRoy Klein Project: Possible Mechanisms of Articular Cartilage Destruction in Septic Arthritis Back to Top 1964 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr George W.N. Eggers Project: Cystic Change in the Iliac Acetabulum   Researcher(s): Dr William F. Neuman, PhD Project: The Current Status of the Mechanisms of Calcification Back to Top 1965 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Jerome Gross Project: Mechanism of Connective Tissue Remodeling   Researcher(s): Dr O. Donald Chrisman Project: Biochemical Aspects of Osteoarthritis   Researcher(s): Dr Richard S. Riggins and Dr Yosef H. Pilch Project: Studies of the Antigenicity of Fibrosarcoma Back to Top 1966 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Carl E. Anderson Project: Invasion and Resorption in Enchondral Ossification: An Electron Microscopic Study Back to Top 1967 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Gerald A.M. Finerman and Dr Leon E. Rosenberg Project: Regulation of Amino Acid Transport and Collagen Synthesis in Fetal Rat Bone   Researcher(s): Dr Robert L. Fisher and Dr Frances DeGeorge, MA Project: Idiopathic Scoliosis: An Investigation of Genetic and Environmental Factors Back to Top 1968 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr James M. Burkhart Project: Parathyroid and Thyroid Hormones in the Development of Immobilizaation Osteoporosis   Researcher(s): Dr G.V.B. Cochran Project: Electromechanical Characteristics of Moist Bone   Researcher(s): Dr Wayne H. Akeson Project: Experimental Arthroplasty of the Canine Hip: Extra cellular Matrix Composition in Non-Interpositional Arthroplasty and Cup Arthroplasty Back to Top 1969 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Sandy C. Marks, Jr, DDS., PhD Project: The Parafollicular Cell of the Tyroid Gland as the Source of a Potent Osteoblast-Stimulating Factor. Evidence from Experimentally Osteopetrotic Mice   Researcher(s): Dr Walter Abendschein and Dr George W. Hyatt Project: Ultrasonics and Selected Physical Properties of Bone   Researcher(s): Dr J. Robert Close Project: The Functions of the Muscles of the Thumb, the Middle and Index Fingers Back to Top 1970 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr William H. Harris and Dr Robert H. Heaney Project: Growth Hormone: The Effect on Skeletal Renewal in the Adult Dog   Researcher(s): Dr Lawrence C. Rosenberg Project: Chemical Basis for the Histolig Use of Safranin O in the Study of Articular Cartilage   Researcher(s): Dr Jorge Galante, Dr William Rostoker, PhD, Dr Roger Lueck, and Dr Robert D. Ray, PhD Project: Sintered Fiber Metal Composites as a Basis for Attachment of Implants to Bone Back to Top 1971 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Clive C. Solomons, PhD, Dr Edward A. Milar, Dr William E. Hathaway, and Dr John E. Ott Project: Osteogenesis Imperfecta: New Perspectives in Diagnosis and Treatment   Researcher(s): Dr. Reginald R. Cooper Project: Skeletal Muscle Alterations During Immobilization, Denervation, Regeneration and Embryonic Myogenesis   Researcher(s): Dr Joseph M. Lane, Dr Darwin J. Prockop, Dr Peter Dehm, PhD, and Dr Lincoln J. Parkes, DVM Project: Inhibition of Collagen Synthesis in Chick Embryos by the Proline Analogue L-Azetidine-2-Carboxylic Acid Back to Top 1972 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Burton W. Marsh, Dr Leo Flynn, and Dr William F. Enneking Project: Immunologic Aspects of Osteosarcoma   Researcher(s): Dr Adrian E. Flatt Project: Problems in the Treatment of Ulnar Drift   Researcher(s): Dr B. Lawrence Riggs Project: Bone Turnover--Sex Hormone--Parathyroid Hormone Relationships in Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis Back to Top 1973 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Eric L. Radin, Dr Igor L. Paul, SCD, and Dr Robert M. Rose, ScD Project: Studies of Joint Function   Researcher(s): Dr F. Richard Convery, Dr Donald R. Gunn, FRCS, Dr J. David Hughes, and Dr Wayne E. Martin Project: The Systemic Manifestations of Polymethyl Methacrylate   Researcher(s): Dr Stephen M. Krane, Dr Sheldon R. Pinnell, and Dr Richard W. Erbe Project: Collagen Lysyl Hydroxylase Deficiency: A New Heritable Disorder of Connective Tissue Back to Top 1974 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Carl T. Brighton Project: Significance of Tissue Oxygen Tension, Glycolysis and Mitochondrial Calcium Release in Epiphyseal Plate Calcification   Researcher(s): Dr Edward D. Harris, Jr, and Dr Peter A. McCroskery, MS Project: Degradation of Human Cartilage Collagen Fibrils by Rheumatoid Synovial Collagenase   Researcher(s): Dr. Frederic W. Rhinelander Project: Circulation in Bone Back to Top 1975 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr David S. Howell, PhD, Dr David Simon, PhD, and Dr Julio C. Pita, PhD Project: Role of Extracellular Matrix Vesicles in InitialCalcification of Healing Rachitic Cartilage   Researcher(s): Dr Jennifer Jowsey, PhD Project: Morphological Studies of the Etiology and Treatment of Osteoporosis   Researcher(s): Dr Henry J. Mankin Project: Metabolism of Articular Cartilage in Health and Disease Back to Top 1976 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr William H. Harris Project: Post-Operative Thromboembolic Disease: The Results of a Concerted Attack on a Complex Problem   Researcher(s): Dr Augusto Sarmiento and Dr Loren Latta, P. Eng Project: Factors Controlling the Behavior of Tibial Shaft Fractures--A Correlation of Laboratory and Clinical Studies   Researcher(s): Dr Augustus A. White, III, Dr Manohar M. Panjabi, PhD, Dr Edmund S. Crelin, PhD, and Dr Wayne O. Southwick Project: A Quantitative Biomechanical Study of Fracture Repair Back to Top 1977 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Frank R. Noyes and Dr Edward S. Grood, PhD Project: Functional Properties of Knee Ligaments and Alterations Induced by Immobilization   Researcher(s): Dr Jacquelin Perry and Dr M. Mark Hoffer Project: Pre and Post-Operative Studies of Muscle Activity in the Cerebral Palsied Child Using Dynamic Electromyography as an Aid in Planning Tendon Transfers   Researcher(s): Dr Aaron S. Posner, PhD Project: The Relation of Synthetic Amorphus Calcium Phosphate to Bone Mineral Structure Back to Top 1978 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Klaus E. Kuettner, PhD Project: The Resistance of Cartilage to Normal and Neoplastic Invasion   Researcher(s): Dr. Robert W. Bright Project: Surgical Correction of Partial Growth Plate Closure--Experience with 52 Children   Researcher(s): Dr John E. Kenzora, Dr Robert E. Steele, and Dr Zvi H. Yosipovitch Project: Experimental Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head in Adult Rabbits Back to Top 1979 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Adele L. Boskey, PhD Project: Calcium Acidic Phospholipid Phosphate Complexes in Tissue Mineralization   Researcher(s): Dr William T. Green, Jr Project: Articular Cartilage Repair: Investigation by the Cell Culture of Isolated Chonodrocytes   Researcher(s): Dr A. Seth Greenwald, PhD, and Dr Mary-Blair Matejczyk Project: Comparative Mechanics of the Hip and Ankle Back to Top 1980 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Thomas E. Whitesides, Jr, Dr Hiroshi Harada, and Dr Kazuo Morimoto Project: Compartment Syndromes and the Role of Fasciotomy, its Parameters and Techniques   Researcher(s): Dr James A. Rand Project: A Comparison of Open Intramedullary Nailing and Compression Plate Fixation on Fracture Site Blood Flow and Fracture Union Back to Top 1981 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Van C. Mow, PhD, and Dr Cecil G. Armstrong, PhD Project: Variations in the Intrinsic Mechanical Properties of Human Articular Cartilage with Age, Degeneration and Water Content   Researcher(s): Dr Marshall R. Urist Project: New Bone Formation Induced in Post-Fetal Life by Bone Morphogenetic Protein"   Researcher(s): Dr Theodore R. Oegema, Jr, PhD Project: Proteoglycan Synthesis and Structure in Human and Rabbit Nucleus Pulposis: A Possible Relationship to Function   Researcher(s): Dr Wilson C. Hayes, PhD Project: Stress-Morphology Relationships in Trabecular Bone of the Patella Back to Top 1982 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr H. Clark Anderson Project: Matrix Vesicle Calcification   Researcher(s): Dr Gary E. Friedlaender Project: Apropos Bone Allografts   Researcher(s): Dr Alfred B. Swanson Project: Bone Remodeling Phenomena in Flexible (Silicone) Implant Arthroplasty in the Hand--Long Term Study   Researcher(s): Dr Richard A. Brand, Dr Roy D. Crowninshield, PhD, and Richard C. Johnston Project: Muscle and Joint Force Predictions and Their Uses Back to Top 1983 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Savio L-Y Woo, PhD Project: Internal Fixation Plates for Fracture Management-New Design Concepts   Researcher(s): Dr William J. Landis, PhD Project: Studies of Mineralizing Tissues Using Anhydrous Techniques for Electron Optical and Microprobe Analysis   Researcher(s): Dr Robert H. Fitzgerald, Jr Project: The Pharmacokinetics of Antibiotics in Normal and Osteomyelitic Bone   Researcher(s): Dr Thomas P. Andriacchi, PhD Project: Interaction Between Knee Joint Mechanics and Patient Function Following Total Knee Replacement Back to Top 1984 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Michael G. Ehrlich Project: Degradative Enzyme Systems in Cartilage   Researcher(s): Dr Raymond T. Morrissy and Dr Darrel W. Haynes, PhD Project: Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis: A Model with Trauma as an Etiologic Agent   Researcher(s): Dr Kai-Nan An, Ph.D., Dr. Edmund Y.S. Chao, Ph.D., Dr. William P. Cooney, III, and Dr. Ronald L. Lincheid Project: Biomechanics of the Hand--A Basic Research Study   Researcher(s): Dr R. William Petty Project: Influence of Skeletal Implant Materials on Infection Back to Top 1985 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Richard H. Gelberman and Dr Paul R. Manske Project: Flexor Tendon Repair   Researcher(s): Dr Clinton T. Rubin, PhD Project: The Osteoregulatory Nature of Mechanical Stimuli   Researcher(s): Dr Christopher H. Evans, PhD Project: Ferrographic and Biochemical Studies on the Wear Particles of Human and Prosthetic Joints   Researcher(s): Dr Victor M. Goldberg, Dr E. Power, Dr John W. Shaver, Dr Jaclyn M. Zika, PhD, Dr Gary Bos, and Dr Kingsbury G. Heiple Project: Bone Grafting: The Barrier to Transplantation Back to Top 1986 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Bruce Heppenstall, Dr Alexander Sapega, and Dr Bruce Chance, PhD Project: Intracellular Energy Metabolism During Ischemia and Skeletal Muscle under Various Clinical Conditions with Articular Reference to 31P-NMR Spectroscopy as a New Investigative Diagnostic Technique   Researcher(s): Dr Andrew J. Weiland Project: Fate of Vascularized Bone Grafts   Researcher(s): Dr Edith R. Schwartz, PhD Project: Phosphorylation of Proteoglycans and Link Proteins in Human Articular Cartilage   Researcher(s): Dr William F. Blair, Dr Thomas D. Brown, PhD, and Dr E.R. Greene, PhD Project: Pulsed Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry in the Assessment of Microvascular Hemodynamics Back to Top 1987 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr Alan R. Hargens, PhD, Dr Wayne H. Akeson, and Dr Scott J. Mubarak Project: Tissue Fluid Pressures: From Basic Research Tools to Clinical Application   Researcher(s): Dr. Steven P. Arnoczky, DVM Project: The Meniscus: Its Repair and Replacement   Researcher(s): Dr Robert B. Salter Project: The Biological Concept of Continuous Passive Motion of Synovial Joints: The First 16 Years of Basic Research and its Clinical Application   Researcher(s): Dr Jane B. Lian, PhD Project: Osteocalcin: Properties, Synthesis, and Role in Bone Resorption Back to Top 1988 Winner(s) Researcher(s): Dr David L. Butler, PhD Project: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Its Normal Response and Replacement Institution   Researcher(s): Dr Steven L. Teitelbaum Project: The Cellular Mechanisms of Bone Resorption   Researcher(s): Dr Peter Grigg, PhD and Dr Allen H. Hoffman, PhD Project: Neuronal Mechanoreceptors as a Probe for Tissue Mechanics Back to Top 1989 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Timothy M. Wright, PhD, Donald L. Bartel, PhD, and Clare M. Rimnac, PhD Project: Surface Damage in Polyethylene Total Joint Components   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Anthony R. Poole, PhD, Carolyn Webber, MSC, Henry J. Mankin, MD, Subhash Pal, PhD, and Lawrence C. Rosenberg, MD Project: Protoglycans of Human Chondrosarcomas: Immunoanalysis Using Monoclonal Antibodies to Keratan Sulfate and A Fetal-Associated Epitope   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Stephen B. Tripple, MD Project: Growth Factor Regulation of Cartilage Back to Top 1990 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Ernesto Canalis, MD Project: The Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor in the Local Regulation of Bone Remodeling   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Arnold I. Caplan, PhD Project: Mesenchymal Stem Cells   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Steven A. Goldstein, PhD, and Larry S. Matthews, MD Project: The Mechanical, Morphologic, Architectural and Remodeling Characteristics of Trabecular Bone Back to Top 1991 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Stanley J. Bigos, MD Project: A Longitudinal Prospective Study of Industrial Back Injury Reporting   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): A.H. Reddi, PhD Project: Purification, Cloning and Expression of Osteogenin, A Protein Initiator of Bone Differentiation   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): W.P. Andrew Lee, MD Project: Toward Clinical Realization of Vascularized Limb Tissue Allografts Back to Top 1992 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Linda J. Sandell, PhD Project: Expression of Collagen and Aggrecan Genes During Skeletal Development and Growth: Control at Transcription and Post-transcription   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Louis V. Avioli, MD Project: A New Post Receptor Signalling Pathway for Parathyroid Hormone in the Osteoblast   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Sharon Stevenson, DVM, PhD Project: Critical Biological Determinants of Cortical Bone Allograft Incorporation: Quantifying a Complex Process and Structure Back to Top 1993 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): J. Grodzinsky, ScD   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Gary S. Stein, PhD, and Jane B. Lian, PhD Project: Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Osteoblast Growth and Differentiation   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): D. Rick Sumner, PhD, Thomas M. Turner,MD, Robert M. Urban, MD and Jorge O. Galante, MD Back to Top 1994 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): James R. Urbaniak, MD, Anthony V. Seaber, and Long-En Chen, PhD Project: Blood No Reflow in Skeletal Muscle After Replantation   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Robert J. Johnson, MD, Bruce D. Boynon, PhD, Braden C. Fleming, MS, Claude E. Nichols, MD, Per A. Renstrom, MD, PhD, Malcolm H. Pope, MD, SC, PhD, and James G. Howe, MD Project: The Biomechanics of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament and Bone-Patella Tendon-Bone Graft in Vivo   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Richard L. Lieber, PhD, and Jan Friden, MD, PhD Project: Mechanism and Prevention of Skeletal Muscle Injury Back to Top 1995 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): John M. Cavanaugh, MS, A. Cuneyt Ozataktay, MD, Toshihiko Yamahita, MD, Avram Avramov, MD, Thomas V. Getchell, PhD, and Albert I. King, PhD Project: Mechanisms of Low Back Pain: A Neurophysiological and Neuroanatomical Study   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Randy N. Rosier, Regis J. O'Keefe, David G. Hicks, Paul R. Reynolds, and J. Edward Puzas Project: Autocrine Regulation of Cartilage   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Stephen P. Horowitz, MD Project: The Biology of Aseptic Loosening of the Cemented Arthroplasty: An In-Vitro Study Back to Top 1996 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Malcolm H. Pope, PhD, Marianne Magnusson, and David G. Wilder, PhD Project: Low Back Pain and Whole Body Vibration   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Kathryn G. Vogel, Stephen P. Evanko, and James R. Robbins, MD Project: What Proteoglycan Content Says About the Medical History of Tendon   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Jon J.P. Warner, MD, Richard E. Debski, and Freddie H. Fu, MD Project: A Dynamic Model for Motion and Stability of the Glenohumeral Joint   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Dale M. Daniel, Donald C. Fithian, Mary Lou Stone, Barbara E. Dobson, William F. Luetzow, MD, and Kenton R. Kaufman Project: A Ten-Year Prospective Outcome Study of the ACL-Injured Patient Back to Top 1997 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): William E. Garrett, MD, Anthony V. Seaber, Thomas M. Best, Richard R. Glisson, Pantelis K. Nikolaou, MD, and Dean C. Taylor, MD Project: Muscle Strain Injury: Basic Science and Clinical Application   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): James N. Weinstein, DO, MS, Kevin F. Spratt, G.F. Gebhart, Mamoru Kawakami, MD, Stephen T. Meller, Nobuhior Hayashi, Hwanmo Lee, and Ken-Inchi Chatani Project: Lumbar Radiculopathy: An Animal Model with Relevance to Clinical Practice   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Denis R. Clohisy, MD Project: Cellular Mecahnisms of Tumor Osteolysis   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Dale M. Daniel, Marc F. Swiontkowski, MD, Diane Martin, Ruth Engelberg, and Julie Agel Project: The Development and Validation of a Musculoskeletal Extremity Health Status Instrument: The Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment Instrument Back to Top 1998 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Henry A. McKellop, PhD Project: Development of an Extremely Wear Resistant Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene for Total Hip Replacements   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Bruce Caterson, PhD Project: The Use of Monoclonal Antibody Technology to Study Cartilage in Health and Disease: A Retrospective and Historical Review   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Farshid Guilak, PhD Project: The Biomechanics of the Chondrocyte in Articular Cartilage   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Stuart L. Weinstein, MD Project: Natural History and Long Term Outcomes of Treatment of Pediatric Orthopaedic Conditions Back to Top 1999 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Julia Bridge Project: A Genetic Approach to Bone and Soft Tissue Tumors   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Thomas Einhorn, MD Project: A Model of Experimental Fracture Healing for Basic and Applied Research   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Scott Boden, MD Project: The Biology of Lumbar Spine Fusion and the Use of Bone Graft Substitutes: Present, Future, and Next Generation...   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Andrew L. Koman, MD, Thomas L. Smith, Zhongyu Li, Beth Paterson Smith Project: Peripheral Microvascular Control Mechanisms Back to Top 2000 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): L.E. Dahners, MD, and G.E. Lester, PhD Project: On Changes in Length of Dense Collagenous Tissue: Growth and Contracture   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): R. Tracy Ballock, MD Project: Regulation of Endochondral Ossification by Thyroid Hormone   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Qian Chen, PhD Project: Molecular Regulation of Chondrocyte Differentiation   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Benjamin A. Alman, MD, and Jay S. Wunder, MD Project: Developmental Pathways in Musculoskeletal Neoplasia: Aggressive Fibromatosis and the Wingless (Wnt) Pathway Back to Top 2001 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Scott P. Bruder, MD, PhD Project: Bone Generation and Regeneration: From Embryonic Chicks to Human Clinical Therapy   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Myron Spector, PhD Project: Expression of Muscle Action in Contraction of Chondrocytes, Osteoblasts, and Musculoskeletal Tissue Fibroblasts   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Robert L. Sah, MD, ScD Project: Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering: Biological and Biomechanical Foundations   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Bruce J. Sangeorzan, MD, Allan Tencer, PhD, and Randy Ching, PhD Project: Changes in the Talo-Calcaneal Joint in Pathological Conditions in the Hindfoot Back to Top 2002 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Joshua J. Jacobs, MD; Anastasia K. Skipor, MD; Robert M. Urban; Nadim J. Hallab, PhD; Leslie Pattern, RN; and Jonathan Black, PhD Project: Systemic Implications of Total Joint Replacement   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): James G. Wright, MD; Gillian A. Hawker, MD; and Peter C. Coyte, PhD Project: Area Variation and Unmet Need for Orthopaedic Surgical Procedures   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Yousef Abu-Amer, PhD Project: Regulation of Inflammatory Bone Loss Diseases: Unveiling Molecular Targets for Therapeutic Intervention   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Joseph D. Zuckerman, MD; and Kenneth J. Koval, MD Project: Hip Fractures in the Elderly: A Comprehensive Clinical and Research Approach Back to Top 2003 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Michael J. Bosse, MD; Ellen J. MacKenzie, PhD; James F. Kellam, MD; Andrew R. Burgess, MD; Lawrence Webb, MD; Marc F. Swiontkowski, MD; Roy Sanders, MD; Alan L. Jones, MD; Mark P. McAndrew, MD; Brendan M. Patterson, MD; Melissa McCarthy, ScD; Thomas G. Travison, PhD; Renan C. Castillo, MS Project: Limb Salvage or Amputation Following Severe Lower Extremity Trauma: The LEAP Study   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Clinton T. Rubin, PhD Project: Revisiting Wolff's Law: The Physiologic Basis and Anabolic Potential of Low Magnitude, High Frequency Mechanical Signals   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Edward M. Greenfield, PhD; Yanming Bi, PhD; Ashraf A. Ragab, MD; Victor M. Goldberg, MD; Jennifer L. Nalepka, BS; Joscelyn M. Seabold, MS Project: Does Endotoxin Contribute to Aseptic Loosening?   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): John J. Callaghan, MD; Douglas R. Pedersen, PhD; Richard C. Johnston, MD; Thomas D. Brown, PhD Project: The Clinical Biomechanics of Wear in Total Hip Arthroplasty Back to Top 2004 Winner(s) Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Brian D. Snyder, MD, PhD; John A. Hipp, PhD; Ara Nazarian, MSc Project: Non-Invasive Prediction of Fracture Risk Due to Benign and Metastatic Skeletal Defects   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Joseph S. Torg, MD; Helene Pavlov, MD; Albert Burstein, PhD Project: The Pathomechanics, Pathophysiology, and Prevention of Reversible and Irreversible Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: Results of a Thirty-Year Clinical Experience   Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Johnny Huard, PhD Project: Gene Therapy and Tissue Engineering Based on Muscle-Derived Stem Cells: Potential for Musculoskeletal Tissue Regeneration and Repair   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Frank R. Noyes, MD; Edward Grood, PhD; Thomas Andriacchi, PhD; Sue Barber-Westin, BS Project: Factors Affecting the Treatment of Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Deficient Knees with Lower Limb Malalignment and Associated Ligamentous Instabilities: A Correlated, Clinical, Biomechanical, and Dynamic Gait Analysis Back to Top 2005 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Edward M. Schwarz, PhD Project: Utility of Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Vectors for Orthopaedic Gene Therapy   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Darryl D. D’Lima, MD; Martin K. Lotz, MD; Clifford Colwell, Jr., MD Project: Cartilage Injury Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Matrix Degradation: In Vitro, In Vivo, and Clinical Consequences   Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Paul D. Robbins, PhD; Steven C. Ghivizzani, PhD Project: Gene Delivery Approaches to the Treatment of Orthopaedic Disorders   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Mininder S. Kocher, MD, MPH; David Zurakowski, PhD; James R. Kasser, MD Project: Septic Arthritis of the Hip in Children: An Evidenced-Based Approach to Improving Clinical Effectiveness Back to Top 2006 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Ranjan Gupta, MD Project: Schwann Cell Regulation of Chronic Nerve Injury   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Kristy Weber, MD, Michele Doucet, MS, Scott Kominsky, PhD Project: Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Blockade in Renal Cell Carcinoma Bone Metastasis   Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Tong-Chuan, He, MD, PhD, Rex C. Haydon, MD, PhD Project: The Distinct Roles of Bone Morphogenetic Proteins in Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Kevin J. Bozic, MD, MBA, Patricia Katz, PhD, Jonathan Showstack, PhD, James Naessens, MPH, Harry E. Rubash, MD, Michael D. Ries, MD, Daniel J. Berry, MD Project: Using Clinical and Economic Outcome Data to Influence Health Policy in the United States: The Case of Total Joint Replacement Back to Top 2007 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Constance R. Chu, MD Project: Integrating Bench to Operating Room: Journey of a Clinician-Scientist   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Martha L. Gray, PhD, Deborah Burstein, PhD, Young-Jo Kim MD, PhD, Alice Maroudas, PhD Project: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cartilage Glycosaminoglycan: Basic Principles, Imaging Technique, and Clinical Applications   Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): David L. Butler, PhD, Natalia Juncosa- Melvin, Ph.D, Gregory P. Boivin, D.V.M., Marc T. Galloway, M.D., Jason T. Shearn, Ph.D., Cynthia Gooch, B.S., Hani Awad, Ph.D. Project: Functional Tissue Engineering for Tendon Repair: A Multidisciplinary Strategy using Mesenchymal Stem Cells, Bioscaffolds and Mechanical Stimulation   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Christian Gerber, MD, FRCSEd(hon) Project: Rotator Cuff Disease: From Scientific Understanding to Patient Care Back to Top 2008 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Chuan-ju Liu, PhD; Yi Luan, MD, PhD; Yan Zhang, MD, PhD; Ronald Damani Howell, BS; and Li Kong, MD Project: ADAMTS-7 and ADAMTS-12: Two Novel Cartilage-Degrading Metalloproteinases   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Michele C. Battié, PhD; Tapio Videman, MD, PhD; Jaakko Kaprio, MD, PhD; Laura E. Gibbons, PhD; Kevin Gill, MD; Janna Saarela, MD, PhD; and Leena Peltonen, MD, PhD Project: The Foundation of a New Paradigm of Disc Degeneration: The Twin Spine Study   Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Karen M. Lyons, PhD and Vicki Rosen, PhD Project: In Vivo Studies of BMP Pathway Activities in Chondrogenesis   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Hans-Christoph Pape, MD Project: Effects of Changing Strategies of Fracture Fixation on Immunologic Changes and Systemic Complications After Multiple Trauma: Damage Control Orthopaedic Surgery Back to Top 2009 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Stavros Thomopoulos, PhD Project: Structure, Biomechanics, and Mechanobiology in the Attachment of Tendon to Bone   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Michael J. Yaszemski, MD, PhD and Lichun Lu, PhD Project: Osteoinductive Injectable Degradable Polymeric Scaffolds for Osseous Defect Repair   Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Hiroshi Kawaguchi, MD, PhD, Toru Akune, MD, PhD, Takashi Yamada, MD, PhD and Naoshi Ogata, MD, PhD Project: Mouse Genetics Studies on Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Bone and Cartilage Disorders   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Lawrence C. Hurst, MD, Marie A. Badalamente, PhD and Edward D. Wang, MD Project: Injectable Clostridial Collagenase: Striving Toward Nonoperative Treatment Options for Fibroproliferative Disorders Back to Top 2010 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Brian K. Kwon, MD, PhD, FRCSC Project: Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure Monitoring and Biochemical Analysis in Acute Spinal Cord Injury – A Translational Approach   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Cornelia E. Farnum, DVM, PhD Co-Author: Norman J. Wilsman, DVM, PhD Project: Analyzing the Growth Plate in Four Dimensions - A Thirty-year Perspective on Growth Plate Dynamics   Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Louis J. Soslowsky, PhD Project: Understanding the Etiology, Pathogenesis, and Repair Response of Rotator Cuff Injuries: A Series of Interconnected Studies Developing and Using an Animal Model   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Mohit Bhandari, MD Co-Authors: Gordon Guyatt, Stephen Walter, Emil Schemitsch, Dave Sanders, Marc Swiontkowski, and Paul Tornetta, III Project: Setting a New Benchmark for Collaborative Trials in Trauma: The Rationale, Design, and Execution of the Study to Prospectively Evaluate Intramedullary Nails in Tibial Shaft Fractures (S.P.R.I.N.T.) Back to Top 2011 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Young-Min Kwon, MD, PhD, FRCS, FRACS Project: Evidence-Based Approach in Understanding 'Pseudotumour' in Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Howard S. An, MD Co-Authors: Koichi Masuda, MD; Gabriella Cs‐Szabo, PhD; Yejia Zhang, MD, PhD; Ana Chee, PhD; Gunnar B.J. Andersson, MD, PhD; Hee-Jeong Im, PhD; Eugene J-M.A. Thonar, PhD Project: Intervertebral Disc Repair or Regeneration by Growth Factor and/or Cytokine Inhibitor Protein Injection   Ann Doner Vaughan Award Researcher(s): Bang H. Hoang, MD Co-Authors: Yi Guo, MD; Randall F. Holcombe, MD; Xiaolin Zi, MD Project: Project: Toward Novel Therapeutic Intervention for Osteosarcoma: Clinical Implications of the WNT Pathway   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Donald D. Anderson, PhD Co-Authors: J. Lawrence Marsh, MD; Thomas D. Brown, PhD Project: The Pathomechanical Etiology of Post-traumatic Osteoarthritis Following Intra-articular Fractures Back to Top 2012 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Xudong Joshua Li, MD, PhD Project: GDF5 Modulation in Intervertebral Disc Degeneration   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Jay R. Lieberman, MD Project: Regional Gene Therapy to Enhance Bone Repair   Ann Doner Vaughan Award Researcher(s): Kurt P. Spindler, MD Co-Authors: Richard D. Parker, MD, Jack T. Andrish, MD, Christopher C. Kaeding, MD, Rick W. Wright, MD, Robert G. Marx, MD, MSc, Eric C. McCarty, MD, Annunziato Amendola, MD, Warren R. Dunn, MD, MPH, Laura J. Huston, MS, Frank E. Harrell, Jr., PhD Project: Prognosis and Predictors of ACL Reconstructions using the MOON Cohort: A Model for Comparative Effectiveness Studies   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Thomas D. Brown, PhD Co-Authors: Jacob M. Elkins, MS, Douglas R. Pedersen, PhD, John J. Callaghan, MD Project: Impingement and Dislocation in Total Hip Arthroplasty: Mechanisms and Consequences Back to Top 2013 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Elise F. Morgan, PhD Project: Control of Bone Healing by Mechanical Factors   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Richard L. Lieber, PhD Co-Authors: Samuel R. Ward, PT, PhD, Jan Friden, MD, PhD Project: Design of Human Skeletal Muscles: Implications For Orthopaedic Surgery More on the winners   Ann Doner Vaughan Award Researcher(s): Martha M. Murray, MD Co-Author: Braden C. Fleming, PhD Project: The Biology of ACL Injury and Repair   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Robert F. LaPrade, Md, PhD Co-Authors: Steinar Johansen, MD, Lars Engebretsen, MD, PhD, Chad J, Griffith, MD / Benjamin R. Coobs, MD, Andrew G. Geeslin, MD Project: Improving Outcomes for Posterolateral Knee Injuries Running Title: The Posterolateral Corner of the Knee Back to Top 2014 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Brian Feeley, MD Project: Understanding the development of muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration in massive rotator cuff tears   Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): Freddie H. Fu, MD Project: Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Changing Paradigm   Ann Doner Vaughan Award Researcher(s): Ken Yamaguchi, MD, MBA Co-Authors: Sharlene A. Teefey, MD, Jay D. Keener, MD, Leesa Galatz, MD Project: Natural History of Rotator Cuff Disease: Relationship to Surgical Indications   OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): James N. Weinstein, MD, MS Co-Authors: Adam M. Pearson, MD, MS, Jon D. Lurie, MD, MS, Tor D. Tosteson, ScD, Anna N.A. Tosteson, ScD, William A. Abdu, MD, MS, Sohail K. Mirza, MD, MPH Project: The Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT) Back to Top 2015 Winner(s) Young Investigator Award Researcher(s): Robert L. Mauck, PhD Co-Authors: Dawn M. Elliott, PhD and Jason A. Burdick, PhD Project: Engineering Dense Connective Tissues: Mechanical, Material, and Mechanobiologic Considerations Ann Doner Vaughn Award Researcher(s): Steven A. Olson, MD Co-Authors: Farshid Guilak, PhD, Virginia Kraus, MD, PhD, Bridgette Furman, BS, and Janet Huebner, MS Project: Early Inhibition of Proinflammatory Cytokines Prevents Post-Traumatic Arthritis: Insights from the Natural History of Arthritis Developing after Intra-Articular Fracture More on the winners Elizabeth Winston Lanier Award Researcher(s): William D. Bugbee, MD Co-Authors: Andrea L. Pallante-Kichura, PhD, Simon Görtz, MD, Robert Sah, MD, ScD, and David Amiel, PhD Project: Osteochondral Allograft Transplantation in Cartilage Repair: Graft Storage Paradigm, Translational Models, and Clinical Applications More on the winners OREF Clinical Research Award Researcher(s): Stuart L. Weinstein, MD Co-Authors: Lori A. Dolan, PhD Project: The Evidence Base for the Prognosis and Treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Back to Top


Anterior dislocations account for nearly 95% of all shoulder dislocations. This typically occurs in athletes who are 25 years old and younger. Males are much more commonly affected than are females .The most common mechanism of injury is a fall onto an outstretched arm. The extremity is typically in an externally rotated and abducted position. The history and physical examination are crucial elements in the treatment of shoulder instability. The diagnosis is usually not subtle if the patient sustains an acute dislocation, but may be much more difficult in overhead athletes who may have subtle subluxation episodes

This article reviews the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of anterior glenohumeral instability, and reviews management options for treating anterior glenohumeral instability, including nonsurgical intervention. The article reviews considerations in surgical management and presents two surgical techniques in depth: open anteroinferior capsular shift and arthroscopic Bankart repair.

HOT TOPIC: Early Versus Delayed Physical Therapy After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair

Physical therapy is an important component in the postoperative management of patients undergoing arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Debate exists, however, with regard to the appropriate timing of this therapy. The classical approach stresses early passive range-of-motion exercise after surgery in an effort to minimize postoperative stiffness. However, there is concern that early therapy may result in unwanted strain at the repair site, which may not be optimal for rotator cuff healing. Recent studies have demonstrated no significant differences in shoulder range of motion at 1 year postoperatively using either an early or delayed range of motion protocol. The timing of therapy after arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery continues to be an area of investigation, and currently both early and delayed rehabilitation protocols are successfully used.

Shoulder Arthritis in the Young Patient: What Are the Options?

Glenohumeral arthritis in the young, active patient represents a clinical challenge for the treating physician because of these patients’ higher functional demands and their need to maintain a functional shoulder for many additional decades of life. Nonsurgical treatment followed by joint-sparing or joint-preserving surgical procedures should be pursued whenever possible. Such surgical treatment options include débridement, capsular release, microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and osteochondral allograft techniques. When joint replacement is needed, partial resurfacing or bone-preserving procedures may offer effective solutions. When complete humeral and/or glenoid replacement is required, careful decisions about expectations and functional requirements are needed, and alternative bearing surfaces can be considered.

Articular Cartilage Injuries of the Glenohumeral Joint: Diagnosis, Imaging, and Management

Injuries to the articular cartilage of the glenohumeral joint represent a challenge to the orthopaedic surgeon from diagnosis to management. The etiologies of such injuries are numerous, and despite exhaustive physical examination and modern imaging techniques, their diagnosis remains difficult and they are often incidental findings made in the course of treating a concomitant injury. Following their diagnosis, the options for treating injuries to the glenohumeral cartilage are multiple, ranging from conservative treatment to surgery. Their management must be tailored to the type of lesion and the individual patient in terms of the patient's age, activity level, and expectations. Although arthroplasty has produced good results in the treatment of advanced glenohumeral osteoarthritis in elderly patients, its clinical outcomes are less predictable in the younger and more active population, and the risk of such complications as the early loosening of implants is higher in this population. New technologies and mini-invasive surgical techniques have recently provided alternative treatments for this younger patient population. Additionally, the literature has described many restorative and reconstructive techniques for lesions of the glenohumeral cartilage, in all of which the goal is to delay the need for arthroplasty. This article describes the challenges associated with the diagnosis and management of injuries to the glenohumeral articular cartilage, and emphasizes techniques for preserving the shoulder joint in young patients with active demands on this joint.