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MODULE 1 – General Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Tumors
Brian E. Brigman, MD, PhD, Module Editor
This module provides an overview for evaluating patients with bone and soft-tissue tumors. Given the elements for working-up a patient with a suspected musculoskeletal tumor, you will evaluate imaging studies, compare and contract surgical and nonsurgical treatment protocols, and apply concepts for recognizing musculoskeletal tumors.
MODULE 2 – Benign Bone Tumors
Wakenda K. Tyler, MD, MPH, Module Editor
This module focuses on bone tumors that are not cancerous (benign). Benign tumors are usually not life threatening and, in most cases, will not spread to other parts of the body. The lessons in this module explore the common benign bone tumors by discussing their clinical presentation, radiologic, and histologic features, and overall management.
MODULE 3 – Primary Malignant Tumors
Carol D. Morris, MD, MS, Module Editor
Bone tumors develop when cells within a bone divide uncontrollably, forming a lump or mass of abnormal tissue. Some bone tumors are cancerous (malignant). When a bone tumor is cancerous, it is either a primary bone cancer or a secondary bone cancer. A primary bone cancer actually begins in bone, whereas a secondary bone cancer begins somewhere else in the body and them metastasizes or spreads to bone. Secondary bone cancer is also called metastatic bone disease.
The lessons in this module explore the most common malignant bone tumors by discussing their clinical presentation, pathophysiology, imaging findings, and histology. It also reviews the management principles of various bone malignancies.
MODULE 4 – Soft-Tissue Tumors
Christian M. Ogilvie, MD, Module Editor
This module focuses on the classification, diagnosis, and management of benign and malignant soft-tissue tumors. Soft-tissue tumors represent a heterogeneous group of diagnostic entities that are generally defined as tumors of the connective tissues, such as muscle, fat, synovium, vascular tissue, and neural tissue. Although the true prevalence of soft-tissue masses is unknown, benign soft-tissue tumors far outnumber malignant lesions. Malignant soft-tissue tumors can be extremely aggressive, and inappropriate diagnosis and management can result in an adverse outcome. Therefore, it is important to properly evaluate and diagnose every soft-tissue mass.
Treatment for most benign soft-tissue tumors is a surgical excision, although slow-growing entities such as lipomas can be observed. For malignant soft-tissue tumors treatment consists of a multidisciplinary approach that may include surgery, and/or radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.
MODULE 5 – Metastatic Bone Disease
Adam S. Levin, MD, Module Editor
It is estimated that 50% of patients with cancer will develop bone metastases. As treatment improve and survival rates increase, it is likely that most orthopaedic surgeons will encounter bone metastases in their practices. This module covers the proper evaluation of patients with bone metastases, as well as some general and disease-specific concerns.
The management of skeletal metastasis in the upper and lower extremities and the spine is summarized, and the basics of pathology and pathophysiology that physicians would be expected to know for safe practice are also discussed.
The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) and the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) would like to thank the following organization for providing an educational grant in support of this course: