COVID-19 Infection Spread & Prevention

As of September 1, 2020, this article/literature list is no longer being actively updated.  If noteworthy studies are released in the future, those may be posted on a case-by-case basis. If you have any questions please contact Kaitlyn Sevarino at

Under no circumstances should this list be viewed as AAOS concurring with or endorsing of the study findings, nor has AAOS conducted a systematic review of all surgical literature relevant to COVID-19. The study authors, designs, and data have not been assessed for risk of bias, quality, or accuracy, respectively. Healthcare providers should rely on their own clinical judgment in review and use of these materials.

  1. Temmesfeld MJ, Jakobsen RB, Grant P. Does a surgical helmet provide protection against aerosol transmitted disease? Acta Orthop. 2020:1-5.

  2. Bouche PA, Valteau B, Dumaine V, et al. Were protective procedures against SARS-CoV-2 effective in an orthopaedic and trauma centre during the lockdown period? A retrospective study.Int Orthop.2020:1-6.
  3. Jones P, Roberts S, Hotu C, Kamona S. What proportion of healthcare worker masks carry virus? A systematic review. Emerg Med Australas.
  4. Thomas CN, Schroder LK, Cole PA. Ten days to implementation of 3D-printed masks for a level-I orthopaedic trauma practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Bone Joint Surg Am.
  5. Aldridge RW, Lewer D, Katikireddi SV, et al. Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups in England are at increased risk of death from COVID-19: indirect standardisation of NHS mortality data. Wellcome Open Res. 2020;5:88.
  6. Cortes ARG, Galea K, No-Cortes J, Sammut EJ, Alzoubi EE, Attard NJ. Use of free CAD design software for 3D printing individualized face masks based on face scans. Int J Comput Dent. 2020:1-7.
  7. Cramer A, Plana D, Yang HL, et al. Analysis of SteraMist ionized hydrogen peroxide technology in the sterilization of N95 respirators and other PPE: a quality improvement study. 2020.
  8. Dittman JM, Tse W, Amendola MF. Optimizing Peripandemic Care for Veteran Major Non-Traumatic Lower Extremity Amputees: A Proposal Informed by a National Retrospective Descriptive Analysis of COVID-19 Risk Factor Prevalence. Mil Med.
  9. Garzaro G, Clari M, Ciocan C, et al. COVID-19 infection and diffusion among the healthcare workforce in a large university-hospital in northwest Italy. Med Lav. 2020;111(3):184-194.
  10. Schmidt SB, Grüter L, Boltzmann M, Rollnik JD. Prevalence of serum IgG antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 among clinic staff. PLoS One. 2020;15(6):e0235417.
  11. Shrestha NK, Marco Canosa F, Nowacki AS, et al. Distribution of Transmission Potential during Non-Severe COVID-19 Illness. Clin Infect Dis.
  12. Torneri A, Libin P, Vanderlocht J, Vandamme AM, Neyts J, Hens N. A prospect on the use of antiviral drugs to control local outbreaks of COVID-19. BMC Med. 2020;18(1):191.
  13. Wang C, Deng R, Gou L, et al. Preliminary study to identify severe from moderate cases of COVID-19 using combined hematology parameters. Ann Transl Med. 2020;8(9):593.
  14. Yadaw AS, Li YC, Bose S, Iyengar R, Bunyavanich S, Pandey G. Clinical predictors of COVID-19 mortality. 2020.
  15. Widmer, A. F., Richner, G. Proposal for a EN 149 acceptable reprocessing method for FFP2 respirators in times of severe shortage. Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2020; 1: 88
  16. Bein, B., Bachmann, M., Huggett, S., Wegermann, P. SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: Evidence-Based Recommendations on Diagnosis and Therapy. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2020; 5: 491-498
  17. Díaz-Guio, D. A., Ricardo-Zapata, A., Ospina-Velez, J., Gómez-Candamil, G., Mora-Martinez, S., Rodriguez-Morales, A. J. Cognitive load and performance of health care professionals in donning and doffing PPE before and after a simulation-based educational intervention and its implications during the COVID-19 pandemic for biosafety. Infez Med 2020; 0: 111-117
  18. Liu, M., Cheng, S. Z., Xu, K. W., Yang, Y., Zhu, Q. T., Zhang, H., Yang, D. Y., Cheng, S. Y., Xiao, H., Wang, J. W., Yao, H. R., Cong, Y. T., Zhou, Y. Q., Peng, S., Kuang, M., Hou, F. F., Cheng, K. K., Xiao, H. P. Use of personal protective equipment against coronavirus disease 2019 by healthcare professionals in Wuhan, China: cross sectional study. Bmj 2020; 0: m2195
  19. Nguyen, L. H., Drew, D. A., Joshi, A. D., Guo, C. G., Ma, W., Mehta, R. S., Sikavi, D. R., Lo, C. H., Kwon, S., Song, M., Mucci, L. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., Eliassen, A. H., Hart, J. E., Chavarro, J. E., Rich-Edwards, J. W., Davies, R., Capdevila, J., Lee, K. A., Lochlainn, M. N., Varsavsky, T., Graham, M. S., Sudre, C. H., Cardoso, M. J., Wolf, J., Ourselin, S., Steves, C. J., Spector, T. D., Chan, A. T. Risk of COVID-19 among frontline healthcare workers and the general community: a prospective cohort study. medRxiv 2020; 0:
  20. Tan, W., Ye, Y., Yang, Y., Chen, Z., Yang, X., Zhu, C., Chen, D., Tan, J., Zhen, C. Whole-Process Emergency Training of Personal Protective Equipment Helps Healthcare Workers Against COVID-19: Design and Effect. J Occup Environ Med 2020; 6: 420-423
  21. Beam, Elizabeth L., Herstein, Jocelyn J., Kupzyk, Kevin A., Gibbs, Shawn G. A simulation approach to measure critical safety behaviors when evaluating training methods for respirator education in healthcare workers. j. infect. control 2020; 0:
  22. Dexter, F., Ledolter, J., Wall, R. T., Datta, S., Loftus, R. W. Sample sizes for surveillance of S. aureus transmission to monitor effectiveness and provide feedback on intraoperative infection control including for COVID-19. Perioper Care Oper Room Manag 2020; 0: 100115
  23. Preliminary Estimates of the Prevalence of Selected Underlying Health Conditions Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 - United States, February 12-March 28, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020; 13: 382-386
  24. "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Office of Infectious Diseases" Discontinuation of Transmission-Based Precautions and Disposition of Patients with COVID-19 in Healthcare Settings (Interim Guidance). 2020; 0:
  25. Bartoszko, J. J., Farooqi, M. A. M., Alhazzani, W., Loeb, M. Medical Masks vs N95 Respirators for Preventing COVID-19 in Health Care Workers A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2020; 0:
  26. Begot, E., Prevel, R., Camou, F., Picard, W., Gisbert-Mora, C., Boyer, A., Gruson, D. Critically ill influenza patients-co-infections and cardiovascular events. Annals of Intensive Care 2019; 0:
  27. Böhmer MM, Buchholz U, Corman VM, et al. Investigation of a COVID-19 outbreak in Germany resulting from a single travel-associated primary case: a case series. Lancet Infect Dis.
  28. Boskoski, I., Gallo, C., Wallace, M. B., Costamagna, G. COVID-19 pandemic and personal protective equipment shortage: protective efficacy comparing masks and scientific methods for respirator reuse. Gastrointest Endosc 2020; 0:
  29. Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad, Seale, Holly, Rawlinson, William D., Kunasekaran, Mohana, Macintyre, C. Raina Selection and Use of Respiratory Protection by Healthcare Workers to Protect from Infectious Diseases in Hospital Settings. Ann Work Expo Health 2020; 4: 368-377
  30. Dietz, L., Horve, P. F., Coil, D. A., Fretz, M., Eisen, J. A., Van Den Wymelenberg, K. 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic: Built Environment Considerations To Reduce Transmission. mSystems 2020; 2:
  31. Jefferson, T., Foxlee, R., Del Mar, C., Dooley, L., Ferroni, E., Hewak, B., Prabhala, A., Nair, S., Rivetti, A. Cochrane Review: Interventions for the interruption or reduction of the spread of respiratory viruses. Evid Based Child Health 2008; 4: 951-1013
  32. Kampf, G., Todt, D., Pfaender, S., Steinmann, E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect 2020; 3: 246-251
  33. Ki, H. K., Han, S. K., Son, J. S., Park, S. O. Risk of transmission via medical employees and importance of routine infection-prevention policy in a nosocomial outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): a descriptive analysis from a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. BMC pulmonary medicine 2019; 1: 190
  34. Li, D. F., Cadnum, J. L., Redmond, S. N., Jones, L. D., Donskey, C. J. It's Not the Heat, It's the Humidity: Effectiveness of a Rice Cooker-Steamer for Decontamination of Cloth and Surgical Face Masks and N95 Respirators. Am J Infect Control 2020; 0:
  35. Liu, Y., Gu, Z., Xia, S., Shi, B., Zhou, X. N., Shi, Y., Liu, J. What are the Underlying Transmission Patterns of COVID-19 Outbreak? - An Age-specific Social Contact Characterization. EClinicalMedicine 2020; 0: 100354-100354
  36. Liu, Yuan, Ning, Zhi, Chen, Yu, Guo, Ming, Liu, Yingle, Gali, Nirmal Kumar, Sun, Li, Duan, Yusen, Cai, Jing, Westerdahl, Dane, Liu, Xinjin, Xu, Ke, Ho, Kin-fai, Kan, Haidong, Fu, Qingyan, Lan, Ke Aerodynamic analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in two Wuhan hospitals. Nature 2020; 0:
  37. Long, Youlin, Hu, Tengyue, Liu, Liqin, Chen, Rui, Guo, Qiong, Yang, Liu, Cheng, Yifan, Huang, Jin, Du, Liang Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks against influenza: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of evidence-based medicine (Online) 2020; 0:
  38. MacIntyre, C. R., Wang, Q., Cauchemez, S., Seale, H., Dwyer, D. E., Yang, P., Shi, W., Gao, Z., Pang, X., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Duan, W., Rahman, B., Ferguson, N. A cluster randomized clinical trial comparing fit-tested and non-fit-tested N95 respirators to medical masks to prevent respiratory virus infection in health care workers. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2011; 3: 170-179
  39. Modi, P. D., Nair, G., Uppe, A., Modi, J., Tuppekar, B., Gharpure, A. S., Langade, D. COVID-19 Awareness Among Healthcare Students and Professionals in Mumbai Metropolitan Region: A Questionnaire-Based Survey. Cureus 2020; 4: e7514
  40. Parhar, H. S., Tasche, K., Brody, R. M., Weinstein, G. S., O'Malley, B. W., Jr., Shanti, R. M., Newman, J. G. Topical preparations to reduce SARS-CoV-2 aerosolization in head and neck mucosal surgery. Head Neck 2020; 0:
  41. Samsami, M., Zebarjadi Bagherpour, J., Nematihonar, B., Tahmasbi, H. COVID-19 Pneumonia in Asymptomatic Trauma Patients; Report of 8 Cases. 2020; 1: e46
  42. van Wezel RAC, Vrancken ACT, Ernest M, Laurensse J, van Doornmalen Gomez Hoyos J. In hospital verification of non CE-marked respiratory protective devices to ensure safety of healthcare staff during the COVID-19 outbreak. J Hosp Infect.
  43. Victor Okhuese, A. Estimation of the Probability of Reinfection With COVID-19 by the Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed-Undetectable-Susceptible Model. JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020; 2: e19097
  44. Wilson, J. M., Schwartz, A. M., Farley, K. X., Devito, D. P., Fletcher, N. D. Doing Our Part to Conserve Resources: Determining Whether All Personal Protective Equipment Is Mandatory for Closed Reduction and Percutaneous Pinning of Supracondylar Humeral Fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2020; 0:
  45. Winck, J. C., Ambrosino, N., Dowdell, James E., Louie, Philip K., Virk, Sohrab, McCarthy, Michael H., Sandhu, Harvinder S., Qureshi, Sheeraz A., Albert, Todd J., Kim, Han Jo COVID-19 pandemic and non invasive respiratory management: Every Goliath needs a David. An evidence based evaluation of problems Spine Fellowship Training Reorganizing during a Pandemic: Perspectives from a Tertiary Orthopaedic Specialty Center in the Epicenter of Outbreak. Pulmonology (Barc., Print) 2020; 0:
  46. Wu, Feng, Guo, Mengfei, Zhang, Shuai, Ma, Yanling, Ma, Pei, Duan, Limin, Wang, Xuan, Lv, Zhilei, Xu, Juanjuan, Fan, Jinshuo, Ma, Guanzhou, Yi, Jianhua, Hu, Yu, Jin, Yang Transmission of 2019-nCoV to Health-Care Workers in the Early Epidemic. SSRN Electronic Journal 2020; 0:
  47. Zhong, H., Zhu, Z., Lin, J., Cheung, C. F., Lu, V. L., Yan, F., Chan, C. Y., Li, G. Reusable and Recyclable Graphene Masks with Outstanding Superhydrophobic and Photothermal Performances. ACS Nano 2020; 0: