Preventing COVID-19 Infection In Surgical Settings

As of September 1, 2020, this article/literature list is no longer being actively updated.  If noteworthy studies are released in the future, those may be posted on a case-by-case basis. If you have any questions please contact Kaitlyn Sevarino at

Under no circumstances should this list be viewed as AAOS concurring with or endorsing of the study findings, nor has AAOS conducted a systematic review of all surgical literature relevant to COVID-19. The study authors, designs, and data have not been assessed for risk of bias, quality, or accuracy, respectively. Healthcare providers should rely on their own clinical judgment in review and use of these materials.

  1. Kumar A, Qureshi OA, Arora R, Kumar S, Jameel J, Khan R. Comparison of three low-cost techniques to control fogging of sealed eyewear in a simulated operating room environment: A preliminary analysis. J Clin Orthop Trauma.
  2. Rajakulasingam R, Da Silva EJ, Azzopardi C, Fernandez T, Botchu R, Hargunani R. Standard operating procedure of image-guided intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic: a combined tertiary musculoskeletal oncology centre experience. Clin Radiol.
  3. Bianco F, Incollingo P, Grossi U, Gallo G. Preventing transmission among operating room staff during COVID-19 pandemic: the role of the aerosol box and other personal protective equipment. Updates Surg.
  4. Jones P, Roberts S, Hotu C, Kamona S. What proportion of healthcare worker masks carry virus? A systematic review. Emerg Med Australas.
  5. Martin C, Kloka J, Lotz G, Zacharowski K, Raimann FJ. The Frankfurt COVid aErosol pRotEction Dome – COVERED - a consideration for personal protective equipment improvement and technical note. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med.
  6. Soma M, Jacobson I, Brewer J, Blondin A, Davidson G, Singham S. Operative team checklist for aerosol generating procedures to minimise exposure of healthcare workers to SARS-CoV-2. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2020;134.
  7. Albahri OS, Al-Obaidi JR, Zaidan AA, et al. Helping doctors hasten COVID-19 treatment: Towards a rescue framework for the transfusion of best convalescent plasma to the most critical patients based on biological requirements via ml and novel MCDM methods. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2020;196:105617.
  8. Aldridge RW, Lewer D, Katikireddi SV, et al. Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic groups in England are at increased risk of death from COVID-19: indirect standardisation of NHS mortality data. Wellcome Open Res. 2020;5:88.
  9. Garzaro G, Clari M, Ciocan C, et al. COVID-19 infection and diffusion among the healthcare workforce in a large university-hospital in northwest Italy. Med Lav. 2020;111(3):184-194.
  10. Spyropoulos AC, Levy JH, Ageno W, et al. Scientific and Standardization Committee Communication: Clinical Guidance on the Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19. J Thromb Haemost.
  11. Doglietto, F., Vezzoli, M., Gheza, F., Lussardi, G. L., Domenicucci, M., Vecchiarelli, L., Zanin, L., Saraceno, G., Signorini, L., Panciani, P. P., Castelli, F., Maroldi, R., Rasulo, F. A., Benvenuti, M. R., Portolani, N., Bonardelli, S., Milano, G., Casiraghi, A., Calza, S., Fontanella, M. M. Factors Associated With Surgical Mortality and Complications Among Patients With and Without Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Italy. JAMA Surg 2020; 0:
  12. Global guidance for surgical care during the COVID-19 pandemic. Br J Surg 2020; 0:
  13. Bai, Tao, Tu, Shengjin, Wei, Yuan, Xiao, Li, Jin, Yan, Zhang, Lei, Song, Jun, Liu, Weihua, Zhu, Qingjing, Yang, Ling, Chen, Hua, Hou, Xiaohua Clinical and Laboratory Factors Predicting the Prognosis of Patients with COVID-19: An Analysis of 127 Patients in Wuhan, China. SSRN Electronic Journal 2020; 0:
  14. Bhagavathula, A. S., Aldhaleei, W. A., Rahmani, J., Mahabadi, M. A., Bandari, D. K. Knowledge and Perceptions of COVID-19 Among Health Care Workers: Cross-Sectional Study. JMIR Public Health Surveill 2020; 2: e19160
  15. Cheng, V. C. C., Wong, S. C., Chen, J. H. K., Yip, C. C. Y., Chuang, V. W. M., Tsang, O. T. Y., Sridhar, S., Chan, J. F. W., Ho, P. L., Yuen, K. Y. Escalating infection control response to the rapidly evolving epidemiology of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to SARS-CoV-2 in Hong Kong. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2020; 0: 1-24
  16. De Boer, J. C., Lok, A., van't Verlaat, E., Duivenvoorden, H. J., Bakker, A. B., Smit, B. J. Work-related critical incidents in hospital-based health care providers and the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression: A meta-analysis. Social Science and Medicine 2011; 2: 316-326
  17. Ferrer, M., Torres, A. Noninvasive ventilation for acute respiratory failure. Current Opinion in Critical Care 2015; 1: 1-6
  18. Fregene, T. E., Nadarajah, P., Buckley, J. F., Bigham, S., Nangalia, V. Use of in situ simulation to evaluate the operational readiness of a high-consequence infectious disease intensive care unit. Anaesthesia 2020; 0:
  19. Hu, H., Yao, N., Qiu, Y. Comparing rapid scoring systems in mortality prediction of critical ill patients with novel coronavirus disease. Acad Emerg Med 2020; 0:
  20. Jefferson, T., Del Mar, C. B., Dooley, L., Ferroni, E., Al-Ansary, L. A., Bawazeer, G. A., van Driel, M. L., Nair, S., Jones, M. A., Thorning, S., Conly, J. M. Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 7: Cd006207
  21. Koh, Y., Hegney, D. G., Drury, V. Comprehensive systematic review of healthcare workers' perceptions of risk and use of coping strategies towards emerging respiratory infectious diseases. Int J Evid Based Healthc 2011; 4: 403-19
  22. Lei, S., Jiang, F., Su, W., Chen, C., Chen, J., Mei, W., Zhan, L. Y., Jia, Y., Zhang, L., Liu, D., Xia, Z. Y., Xia, Z. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing surgeries during the incubation period of COVID-19 infection. EClinicalMedicine 2020; 0: 100331
  23. Li, S., Wang, Y., Xue, J., Zhao, N., Zhu, T. The Impact of COVID-19 Epidemic Declaration on Psychological Consequences: A Study on Active Weibo Users. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 6:
  24. Ng, E. Y., Kaw, G. J., Chang, W. M. Analysis of IR thermal imager for mass blind fever screening. Microvasc Res 2004; 2: 104-9
  25. Prachand, V. N., Milner, R., Angelos, P., Posner, M. C., Fung, J. J., Agrawal, N., Jeevanandam, V., Matthews, J. B. Medically-Necessary, Time-Sensitive Procedures: A Scoring System to Ethically and Efficiently Manage Resource Scarcity and Provider Risk During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Am Coll Surg 2020; 0:
  26. Schumacher, J., Arlidge, J., Dudley, D., Sicinski, M., Ahmad, I. The impact of respiratory protective equipment on difficult airway management: a randomised, crossover, simulation study. Anaesthesia 2020; 0:
  27. Soreide, K., Hallet, J., Matthews, J. B., Schnitzbauer, A. A., Line, P. D., Lai, P. B. S., Otero, J., Callegaro, D., Warner, S. G., Baxter, N. N., Teh, C. S. C., Ng-Kamstra, J., Meara, J. G., Hagander, L., Lorenzon, L. Immediate and long-term impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on delivery of surgical services. Br J Surg 2020; 0:
  28. Stommel, W., van Goor, H., Stommel, M. The impact of video-mediated communication on closed wound assessments in post-operative consultations: a conversation analytical study of video-mediated and co-present consultations. J Med Internet Res 2020; 0:
  29. Verbeek, J. H., Rajamaki, B., Ijaz, S., Tikka, C., Ruotsalainen, J. H., Edmond, M. B., Sauni, R., Kilinc Balci, F. S. Personal protective equipment for preventing highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids in healthcare staff. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 0: Cd011621
  30. Wang, Y., Han, W., Pan, L., Wang, C., Liu, Y., Hu, W., Zhou, H., Zheng, X. Impact of COVID-19 on blood centres in Zhejiang province China. Vox Sang 2020; 0:
  31. Workman, A. D., Welling, D. B., Carter, B. S., Curry, W. T., Holbrook, E. H., Gray, S. T., Scangas, G. A., Bleier, B. S. Endonasal instrumentation and aerosolization risk in the era of COVID-19: simulation, literature review, and proposed mitigation strategies. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2020; 0:
  32. Yu, H., Sun, X., Solvang, W. D., Zhao, X. Reverse Logistics Network Design for Effective Management of Medical Waste in Epidemic Outbreaks: Insights from the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in Wuhan (China). Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 5